stamp duty calculator

Stamp Duty Calculator

Plus full Q&A, incl full info on stamp duty holiday up to £500,000

Stamp duty can add £10,000s to a homebuyer's costs, but temporary changes mean many WON'T have to pay it. Until April 2021, in England and Northern Ireland you won't pay any stamp duty on a main residence up to £500,000, while in Scotland and Wales the threshold's risen to £250,000. This guide's got all you need to know about how stamp duty works and when you'll need to pay it, and it also includes a free stamp duty calculator.

Note: We're using stamp duty as a generic term here for ease because that is what so many people refer to it as – we, of course, know it's called something different in Scotland (land and buildings transaction tax) and Wales (land transaction tax).

What is stamp duty?

When you buy a property or land you usually pay tax on it. While often referred to as stamp duty, that's only the name in England and Northern Ireland – it's different in Scotland and Wales, where it's known as 'land and buildings transaction tax' and 'land transaction tax' respectively.

Calculate stamp duty

The rate of stamp duty you'll pay depends on where in the UK you're buying a property. England and Northern Ireland have the same rates, while Scotland and Wales use different rate bandings.

This calculator shows how much stamp duty is due on a MAIN RESIDENCE ONLY (excluding buy-to-let and additional properties), based on where you're buying.

Click the relevant tab for where in the UK you're buying.

For the standard rates once the temporary changes end on 31 March 2021, see below for England and Northern Ireland and Scotland and Wales.

Stamp duty – what's changed?

In response to the coronavirus pandemic, there have been some sweeping changes to stamp duty in England and Northern Ireland, land and buildings transaction tax in Scotland, and land transaction tax in Wales. In a nutshell, the threshold at which you start paying stamp duty (or land and buildings transaction tax/land transaction tax) has increased significantly. In short:

  • In England and Northern Ireland, there is now no stamp duty on any primary residential property worth up to £500,000.
  • In Scotland and Wales, the threshold on a primary residence has increased to £250,000.
  • In all four of the home nations, this temporary change will last until 31 March 2021.

See below for what exactly is changing in each country. But first, some of the most common questions:

  • In all four home nations, the key point is when you complete on your property.

    For those in England and Northern Ireland, the stamp duty change kicked in on 8 July 2020, so if you exchanged before that date but completed after, then you won't be required to pay stamp duty on any property worth up to £500,000. If you completed before the stamp duty change kicked in, unfortunately you'll be subject to the old stamp duty tax bands.

    For those in Scotland, you'll benefit from the new rates if you complete on or after 15 July. For those in Wales, you'll benefit from them if you complete on or after 27 July.

  • Yes, however you will still have to pay some stamp duty. This is how it works in:

    • England and Northern Ireland. If you're buying an additional property you will also benefit from the changes to stamp duty, however not to the same extent as those buying a main residential property.

      Here you'll pay 3% on top of the standard rate on total price for all properties over £40,000. For example, for those buying an additional property in England or Northern Ireland, you will now pay 3% on anything up to £500,000 (properties under £40,000 are exempt), and 8% on the portion above that up to £925,000.

      Previously the rate was 3% on anything up to £125,000, 5% on anything between £125,001 and £250,000, and 8% on anything between £250,001 and £925,000.

    • Wales and Scotland. The rates and bands for additional property buyers have not changed in Wales and Scotland. In Wales, you normally pay an extra 3% on any tax band your property falls under, and in Scotland it's an extra 4%. You can see what tax you'll pay for an additional property in these countries using the tables below.
  • The changes to the stamp duty thresholds will apply to anyone buying a property in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, including first-time buyers.

  • Since 2014, all the home nations have had a progressive stamp duty rate system. This means that instead of paying a single rate on the ENTIRE property price, depending on the cost of the property you're buying you might end up paying one rate on a certain portion of the property and a different rate on another.

If you're in England or Northern Ireland

In England and Northern Ireland, since 8 July 2020 no stamp duty has been due on the first £500,000 of a property (provided it's your main residence, it excludes additional properties).

Here are the stamp duty rates:

Stamp duty in England and Northern Ireland (until 31 March 2021)
PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE (1)
RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES (1)
Up to £500,000 0% 3% (2)
£500,001 – £925,000 5% 8%
£925,001 – £1,500,000 10% 13%
£1,500,001 + 12% 15%
(1) Rate applies to that portion of the purchase price. (2) Properties up to £40,000 are exempt from stamp duty.

1. Let's assume you're buying a property for £450,000...

You pay nothing below £500,000.So this means you'll pay no stamp duty at all.

2. Let's assume you're buying a property for £650,000...

You pay nothing below £500,000.
You pay 5% on between £500,000 and £925,000, which is £7,500 on a £650,000 property.
So in total, this means you'll pay £7,500.

People buying an additional property (ie, in addition to any they already own) that costs more than £40,000 are subject to the higher stamp duty rate. So if you bought a second home worth £100,000, you would pay 3% stamp duty on the portion between £40,000 and £100,000 (see the table above).

  • Stamp duty in England and Northern Ireland (from 1 April 2021)
    PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE (1)
    RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES (1)
    Up to £125,000 (2) 0% 3% (3)
    £125,0001 – £250,000 2% 5%
    £250,001 – £925,000 5% 8%
    £925,001 – £1,500,000 10% 13%
    £1,500,001 + 12% 15%
    (1) Rate applies to that portion of the purchase price. (2) First-time buyers are exempt from stamp duty on the first £300,000. (3) Properties up to £40,000 are exempt from stamp duty. 

If you're in Scotland

It's not actually called stamp duty in Scotland anymore. A reform brought in by the Scottish Government in April 2015 means it's now referred to as 'land and buildings transaction tax' (LBTT).

However, while the name's changed, the principle hasn't. It's still a lump-sum tax that anyone buying a property or land costing more than a set amount has to pay. And it's a remarkably similar system to the one the rest of the UK uses, the main difference is the thresholds it uses are at different rates.

And like in England and Northern Ireland, the Scottish Government has increased the threshold at which you start paying land and buildings transaction tax (which kicked in on 15 July 2020), a change that will last until 31 March 2021. Here's an example of how the temporary Scottish system works, for a property priced priced at £400,000.

You pay nothing below £250,000.
You pay 5% on between £250,001 and £325,000, which is £3,750.
You pay 10% on between £325,001 and £400,000, which is £7,500.

So in total, this means you'll pay £11,250 (£0 + £3,750 + £7,500).

If you're a first-time buyer, these same rules and rates also apply.

Land & buildings transaction tax rate (until 31 March 2021)
PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE
RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES
Up to £250,000 0% 4% (but 6% between £145,001 and £250,000)
£250,001 – £325,000 5% 9%
£325,001 – £750,000 10% 14%
£750,001 + 12% 16%
Correct as of July 2020
  • Land & buildings transaction tax rate (from 1 April 2021)
    PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE
    RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES
    Up to £145,000 (£175,000 for first-time buyers) 0% 4%
    £145,001 – £250,000 2% 6%
    £250,001 – £325,000 5% 9%
    £325,001 – £750,000 10% 14%
    £750,001 + 12% 16%
    Correct as of July 2020

If you're in Wales

The Welsh Revenue Authority (WRA) is responsible for collecting and managing land transaction tax (LTT), which replaced stamp duty land tax in Wales last year.

LTT works similarly to the old stamp duty system, but the Welsh Government has set the thresholds for the tax bands at different rates.

Similar to England, Northern Ireland and Scotland, the threshold at which you start paying land transaction tax has increased (in response to coronavirus). From 27 July 2020 until 31 March 2021, no stamp duty will be due on any main property worth up to £250,000 (this won't apply to additional properties).

Land transaction tax rate (from 27 July 2020 until 31 March 2021)
PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE
RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES
Up to £250,000 0% 3% (but 6.5% between £180,001 and £250,000) 
£250,001 – £400,000 5% 8%
£400,001 – £750,000 7.5% 10.5%
£750,001 – £1,500,000 10% 13%
£1,500,001 + 12% 15%

Here's an example of how the Welsh system will work until April 2021, for a single residential property priced at £300,000 and filed at main rates.

You pay nothing below £250,000.
You pay 5% on between £250,001 and £300,000, which is £2,500.

So in total, this means you'll pay £2,500 (£0 + £2,500).

  • Land transaction tax rate (from 1 April 2021)
    PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE
    RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES
    Up to £180,000 0% 3%
    £180,001 – £250,000 3.5% 6.5%
    £250,001 – £400,000 5% 8%
    £400,001 – £750,000 7.5% 10.5%
    £750,001 – £1,500,000 10% 13%
    £1,500,001 + 12% 15%
    Correct as of July 2020

How and when do I pay stamp duty?

when to pay stamp duty

The crucial thing to know is that, if you're buying in England or Northern Ireland, you have 14 days from the date of completion/date of entry (when all the contracts are signed and dated and you get the keys – read our Buying a Home guide for a full timeline) to pay stamp duty or transaction tax. Take longer, and you could face a fine and possibly interest on top, so don't!

Buyers used to have 30 days to pay stamp duty, but new legislation reducing this to 14 came into effect in March 2019.

In reality, your solicitor will probably sort this out and push you to pay the bill straightaway – in fact, most tend to want their cash before completing the property purchase for you, just in case you then can't or don't pay them.

However, it's legally your responsibility to ensure your stamp duty/transaction tax is paid. If you are doing this yourself, click the questions to see the process.

  • In case your solicitor doesn't do this for you, here's what you need to do...

    • Find your unique transaction reference number (UTRN)

      It's 11 characters long and found on your submission receipt if you have filed online, or on your paper stamp duty return.

    • Pay online or by phone banking?

      Just as you might move money to a pal's account, you can call up your bank, use HM Revenue & Customs' bank details, and pay it. This normally takes three working days, so take this into account and don't miss the deadline.

    • Other ways to pay

      If you don't have online or phone banking set up, you can pay by card over the web (though there's a charge for credit cards), by giro in most banks, by cheque in post office branches or by post – though the last three options require you to present a payslip.

  • The process is similar to that in England and Northern Ireland, and again your solicitor is likely to do this for you. However, unlike in the rest of the UK, you're not paying HM Revenue & Customs, you need to pay Revenue Scotland instead (and you have 30 days to pay up, as opposed to 14).

    If your solicitor doesn't do this for you, here's how you can do it yourself...

    • Submit an online return registering the transaction

      You'll need to go to Revenue Scotland's site. You're also able to submit a paper return, the info is available through the link.

    • Find your transaction reference

      It's nine characters long, beginning with 'RS'. You can find it on the receipt for your online return.

    • Pay online or by phone banking

      Just as you might move money to a pal's account, you can call up your bank or log on, use Revenue Scotland's bank details, and pay it. You can use Faster Payments, BACS or CHAPS. Remember if you're using BACS that the transfer could take three working days, so don't miss your payment date.

    • Other ways to pay

      If you don't have online or phone banking set up, you can pay by cheque. You must send the cheque to Registers of Scotland.

  • In Wales, Land Transaction Tax is paid to the Welsh Revenue Authority. This is payable within 30 days of you completing on your property.

    If you have a solicitor, they'll usually file your return and pay the tax on your behalf if you ask them to and add the amount to the sum you pay them. The solicitor will usually be able to do this online.

    If you need to pay this yourself, here's how to do it.

    • First you need to submit a return registering the transaction

    You'll need to go to the Welsh Revenue Authority's (WRA) site and submit a paper tax return registering the transaction. Only solicitors and other agents can file and pay online.

    • Find your unique transaction reference number (UTRN)

    If you submit a paper return, you will not be given a UTRN immediately – it will be sent to you once your return has been processed by the WRA. To make sure your tax is paid on time, you should use the following reference number: "Postcode of lead buyer \ surname or organisation name of lead buyer". For example: "CF379EH \ Bloggs".

    • Pay online or by cheque

    Just as you might move money to a pal's account, you can call up your bank or log on, use the WRA's bank details and pay it. You can use Faster Payments, BACS or CHAPS. Remember to include the reference (as explained above) in the payment reference section.

    If using BACS, the WRA must have your payment four working days before the payment due date so it can be processed.

    Cheques need to be made out to the WRA with the payment reference number on the reverse of the cheque.

    If you are paying by cheque, the WRA must receive it 10 working days before the payment due date in order to process the cheque in time.

    Cheques should be posted to:

    Welsh Revenue Authority
    PO Box 110
    Pontypridd
    CF37 9EH

Can I add stamp duty to my mortgage?

The simple answer here is that it's best that you don't, but many people find that they have to.

To add the cost of stamp duty to your loan means a bigger mortgage debt. So, say you needed a £180,000 mortgage to purchase a house costing £300,000, but wanted to add the stamp duty, you'd need to request borrowing of £185,000 (in England, Wales or Northern Ireland), then use your 'extra' deposit money to pay the stamp duty.

There are two main things to consider here. Firstly, as mortgages tend to be taken out over a long term (25 years or more), that's normally how long the stamp duty borrowing will last too. Over a 25-year term at a rate of 5%, that extra £5,000 borrowing will cost around £8,500 in interest, so it's vital to be aware of the cost.

Secondly, this could affect your loan-to-value ratio (LTV) – the measure of how much of a property's value you are borrowing. The most competitive deals require a maximum LTV of 60% – yet in the example above, adding the stamp duty would push you from 60% to almost 62%, so be careful – speak to a mortgage broker to see if it's the right decision.

Ready to get a mortgage? We've lots more guides, tools & tips to help…

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