Stamp Duty Calculator

Stamp Duty Calculator

Including info on soon-to-end stamp duty tax break up to £250,000

The stamp duty holiday in England and Northern Ireland will finally end in its entirety on 30 September, while the tax break has already concluded in Wales and Scotland. This guide's got all you need to know about how stamp duty works, if you'll need to pay it, and what happens once the holiday finishes for good. It also includes our updated Stamp Duty Calculator, which shows how much you'll pay.

Note: We're using stamp duty as a generic term here for ease because that is what so many people refer to it as – we know that it's called something different in Scotland (land and buildings transaction tax) and Wales (land transaction tax).

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What is stamp duty?

When you buy a property or land, you usually pay tax on it. While often referred to as stamp duty, that's only the name in England and Northern Ireland – it's different in Scotland and Wales, where it's known as 'land and buildings transaction tax' and 'land transaction tax' respectively.

Since 2014, all the home nations have had a progressive stamp duty rate system. This means that instead of paying a single rate on the ENTIRE property price, depending on the cost of the property you're buying you might end up paying one rate on a certain portion of the property and a different rate on another.

Stamp Duty Calculator

The rate of stamp duty you'll pay depends on where in the UK you're buying a property. England and Northern Ireland have the same rates, while Scotland and Wales use different rate bandings.

Our calculator shows how much stamp duty is due on a MAIN RESIDENCE ONLY (excluding buy-to-let and additional properties), based on where you're buying.

Updated calc: You can now input your estimated completion date into our calculator. It's important that you fill in this field if you're buying in England or Northern Ireland. That's because you pay stamp duty once you've completed, and the amount you'll need to pay might be affected by the ending of the stamp duty holiday on 30 September 2021, which'll result in the tax that's due changing.

Stamp duty holiday ending entirely on 30 Sep in Eng & NI (it's already finished in Wales and Scotland). How it works

In response to the coronavirus pandemic, the thresholds at which you start paying stamp duty in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland were temporarily increased.

The 'holiday' ended entirely in Wales on 30 June, and finished in Scotland in April. It's ongoing in England and Northern Ireland – albeit in a less generous format to how it started – however it will also end completely in these two countries on Thursday 30 September. 

Here's a breakdown of the stamp duty holiday situation in each country.

Stamp duty holiday in England and Northern Ireland is less generous than it once was

Up until 30 June, there was no stamp duty due on the first £500,000 of any primary residential property in England and Northern Ireland. However, since 1 July, the stamp duty threshold has been lowered. This is how it works:

  • From 1 July until 30 September. No stamp duty will be due on the first £250,000 of any primary residential property – though it's £300,000 if you're a first-time buyer, provided the property you're buying costs £500,000 or less.
  • From 1 October. The stamp duty holiday ends completely on Thursday 30 September, and normal stamp duty rates apply after.

You need to have completed your property purchase by Thursday 30 September to benefit from the stamp duty holiday in its current format. If you exchange on or before 30 September, but complete after 30 September, you'll have missed the deadline and will need to pay the normal rate of stamp duty. 

Stamp duty holiday in Wales has ended

Last summer, the threshold at which you start paying land transaction tax in Wales was increased to £250,000 of any primary residential property. However, this has ended, with the stamp duty holiday in Wales finishing on 30 June. As normal stamp duty rates have applied since 1 July, no land transaction tax will be due on the first £180,000 of any primary residential property.

Stamp duty holiday in Scotland ended in April

The stamp duty (land and buildings transaction tax) holiday in Scotland lasted from July 2020 until 31 March 2021. Since 1 April, the rates at which you pay land and buildings transaction tax have gone back to their pre-coronavirus rates (during the holiday you didn't have to pay anything up to £250,000).

  • Yes, however you will still have to pay some stamp duty. This is how it works in:

    • England and Northern Ireland. If you're buying an additional property you will also benefit from the changes to stamp duty, as long as you have completed on or by 30 September. However not to the same extent as those buying a main residential property.

      Here you'll pay 3% on top of the standard rate you'd normally be charged (unless the additional property is bought for £40,000 or less, in which case you'll be charged the standard stamp duty rate). For example, for those buying an additional property in England or Northern Ireland, you will pay 3% on anything up to £250,000 (previously 3% on anything up to £500,000 when the stamp duty holiday was more generous), and 8% on the portion above that up to £925,000.

      Under normal stamp duty thresholds, the rate is 3% on anything up to £125,000, 5% on anything between £125,001 and £250,000, and 8% on anything between £250,001 and £925,000.
    • Wales. The rates and bands for additional property buyers did not change in Wales whilst the stamp duty holiday there was running. This meant you needed to pay an extra 4% on any tax band your property falls under. You can see what tax you'll pay for an additional property in Wales by using the table below.

Stamp duty rates in England and Northern Ireland

In England and Northern Ireland, no stamp duty is due on the first £250,000 of a property (provided it's your main residence, it excludes additional properties) until Thursday 30 September – though that threshold is £300,000 if you're a first-time buyer.

Here are the stamp duty rates until then:

Stamp duty in England and Northern Ireland (from 1 July until 30 September)
PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE (1)
RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES (2)
Up to £250,000 (up to £300,000 for first-time buyers (3)) 0% 3%
£250,001 – £925,000 5% 8%
£925,001 – £1,500,000 10% 13%
£1,500,001 + 12% 15%
(1) Rate applies to that portion of the purchase price. (2) Additional properties bought for less than £40,000 will be charged the main residence rate of stamp duty. (3) The £300,000 first-time buyer stamp duty threshold does not apply if the property you are buying costs more than £500,000 – if it does, you'll pay the normal rate of stamp duty.

1. Let's assume you're buying a property for £250,000...

You pay nothing below £250,000. So this means you'll pay no stamp duty at all.

2. Let's assume you're buying a property for £500,000...

You pay nothing below £250,000.
You pay 5% on between £250,000 and £500,000, which is £12,500.
So in total, this means you'll pay £12,500 (a saving of £2,500 compared to the normal threshold).

People buying a second home (ie, in addition to any they already own) that costs more than £40,000 are subject to the higher stamp duty rate. So if you bought a second home worth £100,000, you will pay 3% stamp duty on the £100,000 purchase price (see the table above).

  • This is what the stamp duty rate in England and Northern Ireland will be from 1 October 2021:

    Stamp duty in England and Northern Ireland (from 1 October)
    PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE (1)
    RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES (2)
    Up to £125,000 (£300,000 for first-time buyers (3) 0% 3%
    £125,0001 – £250,000 2% 5%
    £250,001 – £925,000 5% 8%
    £925,001 – £1,500,000 10% 13%
    £1,500,001 + 12% 15%
    (1) Rate applies to that portion of the purchase price. (2) Additional properties bought for less than £40,000 will be charged the main residence rate of stamp duty. (3) The £300,000 first-time buyer stamp duty threshold does not apply if the property you are buying costs more than £500,000 – if it does, you'll pay the normal rate of stamp duty.

Stamp duty rates in Scotland

It's not actually called stamp duty in Scotland anymore. A reform brought in by the Scottish Government in April 2015 means it's now referred to as 'land and buildings transaction tax' (LBTT).

However, while the name's changed, the principle hasn't. It's still a lump-sum tax that anyone buying a property or land costing more than a set amount has to pay. And it's a remarkably similar system to the ones in the rest of the UK, the main difference is the thresholds it uses are at different rates – though the Scottish system does have extra relief for first-time buyers like in England and Northern Ireland.

The Scottish Government did introduce a temporary 'stamp duty' holiday between July 2020 and March 2021. Since April, this is the rate of land and building transaction tax that you've been required to pay:

Land & buildings transaction tax rate (from 1 April)
PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE
RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES (1)
Up to £145,000 (£175,000 for first-time buyers) 0% 4%
£145,001 – £250,000 2% 6%
£250,001 – £325,000 5% 9%
£325,001 – £750,000 10% 14%
£750,001 + 12% 16%
(1) Additional properties bought for less than £40,000 will be charged the main residence rate of stamp duty.

Stamp duty rates in Wales

The Welsh Revenue Authority (WRA) is responsible for collecting and managing land transaction tax (LTT) in Wales.

LTT works similarly to the old stamp duty system, but the Welsh Government has set the thresholds for the tax bands at different rates. Unlike in England, Northern Ireland and Scotland, there is no extra stamp duty relief for first-time buyers.

The threshold at which you start paying land transaction tax was also increased in response to coronavirus, meaning no land transaction tax was due on the first £250,000 of a main residential property. However this stamp duty holiday ended on 30 June. These are what the land transaction tax rates are now: 

Land transaction tax rate (from 1 July)
PURCHASE PRICE RATE ON MAIN RESIDENCE
RATE FOR ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES
Up to £180,000 0% 4%
£180,001 – £250,000 3.5% 7.5%
£250,001 – £400,000 5% 9%
£400,001 – £750,000 7.5% 11.5%
£750,001 – £1,500,000 10% 14%
£1,500,001 + 12% 16%

How much stamp duty does a first-time buyer pay?

It can be confusing to work out how much stamp duty a first-time buyer needs to pay now that the stamp duty holiday has changed in some countries and ended in others. Here's what you need to know:

In England and Northern Ireland

Since 1 July, there's no stamp duty for first-time buyers on the first £300,000 of a main residential property (provided the property you're buying costs £500,000 or less).

In Wales 

Since 1 July, first-time buyers pay no land transaction tax on the first £180,000 of a property.

In Scotland

Here, first-time buyer stamp duty rates reverted to their pre-coronavirus thresholds in April. This means that first-time buyers pay no land and buildings transaction tax on the first £175,000 of a property.

When must I pay stamp duty and how can I do it?

when to pay stamp duty

The crucial thing to know is that if you're buying in England or Northern Ireland, you have 14 days from the date of completion/date of entry (when all the contracts are signed and dated, and you get the keys – read our Buying a home guide for a full timeline) to pay stamp duty or transaction tax. Take longer, and you could face a fine and possibly interest on top, so don't!

Buyers used to have 30 days to pay stamp duty, but new legislation reducing this to 14 days came into effect in March 2019.

In reality, your solicitor will probably sort this out and push you to pay the bill straightaway – in fact, most tend to want their cash before completing the property purchase for you, just in case you then can't or don't pay them.

However, it's legally your responsibility to ensure your stamp duty/transaction tax is paid. If you are doing this yourself, click the questions to see the process.

  • In case your solicitor doesn't do this for you, here's what you need to do...

    • Find your unique transaction reference number (UTRN)

      It's 11 characters long and found on your submission receipt if you have filed online, or on your paper stamp duty return.

    • Pay online or by phone banking?

      Just as you might move money to a pal's account, you can transfer the money online or by phone using HM Revenue & Customs' bank details. Bacs payments normally take three working days, so take this into account and don't miss the deadline, while CHAPS payments usually arrive on the same working day.

    • Other ways to pay

      If you don't have online or phone banking set up, you can pay by debit card (but not credit card), by cheque or cash in most banks, and by cheque in post office branches or by post – though the last two options will require you to present a payslip.

  • The process is similar to that in England and Northern Ireland, and again your solicitor is likely to do this for you. However, unlike in the rest of the UK, you're not paying HM Revenue & Customs, you need to pay Revenue Scotland instead, and you have 30 days to pay up, as opposed to 14.

    If your solicitor doesn't do this for you, here's how you can do it yourself...

    • Submit an online return registering the transaction

      You'll need to go to Revenue Scotland's site to do this. Because of coronavirus, it's not currently possible to submit a paper return.

    • Find your transaction reference

      It's 13 characters long, beginning with 'RS'. You can find it on the receipt for your online return.

    • Pay online or by phone banking

      Just as you might move money to a pal's account, you can transfer the money online or by phone using Revenue Scotland's bank details. You can use Faster Payments, Bacs or CHAPS. Remember, if you're using Bacs, the transfer could take three working days, so don't miss your payment date.

    • Other ways to pay

      Because of coronavirus, Revenue Scotland is not currently accepting post, including cheques, so you'll need to pay your LBTT using one of the methods described above.

  • In Wales, land transaction tax is paid to the Welsh Revenue Authority. This is payable within 30 days of you completing on your property.

    If you have a solicitor, they'll usually file your return and pay the tax on your behalf if you ask them to and add the amount to the sum you pay them.

    If you need to pay land transaction tax yourself, here's how to do it...

    • First you need to submit a return registering the transaction

      You'll need to go to the Welsh Revenue Authority's (WRA) site and submit a paper tax return registering the transaction. Even though it's referred to as a 'paper' return, you can actually submit it online – and since the coronavirus pandemic started, it's been recommended that you submit it this way (rather than via post).
    • Find your unique transaction reference number (UTRN)

      After you've submitted your paper return, you will not be given a UTRN immediately. It will be sent to you once your return has been processed by the WRA.

      If you've not got enough time to wait for your UTRN to be issued, you can instead use the following payment reference number: "Postcode of land \ surname of buyer". For example: "CF379EH \ Bloggs".
    • Pay online

      Just as you might move money to a pal's account, you can transfer the money online or by phone using the WRA's bank details. You can use Faster Payments, Bacs or CHAPS. Remember to include the reference (as explained above) in the payment reference section.

      If using BACS, the WRA must have your payment four working days before the payment due date, so that it can be processed.
    • Pay by cheque

      The WRA is not currently accepting payments via cheque because of coronavirus, so you should pay your land transaction tax via one of the methods described above.

Can I add stamp duty to my mortgage?

The simple answer here is that it's best that you don't, but many people find that they have to.

To add the cost of stamp duty to your loan means a bigger mortgage debt. So, say you needed a £180,000 mortgage to purchase a house costing £300,000, but wanted to add the stamp duty, you'd need to request borrowing of £185,000 (in England, Wales or Northern Ireland), then use your 'extra' deposit money to pay the stamp duty.

There are two main things to consider here. Firstly, as mortgages tend to be taken out over a long term (25 years or more), that's normally how long the stamp duty borrowing will last too. Over a 25-year term at a rate of 5%, that extra £5,000 borrowing will cost about £8,500 in interest, so it's vital to be aware of the cost.

Secondly, this could affect your loan-to-value ratio (LTV) – the measure of how much of a property's value you are borrowing. The most competitive deals require a maximum LTV of 60% – yet in the example above, adding the stamp duty would push you from 60% to almost 62%, so be careful – speak to a mortgage broker to see if it's the right decision.

Ready to get a mortgage? We've lots more guides, tools & tips to help…

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