What to do & where to get help
No debt problems are unsolvable. It might not be easy or quick, but there's always a route. And the earlier you deal with 'em, the easier they are to deal with.
Debt isn't just a finance issue. It feeds into all elements of your life. This guide covers wide and varied solutions, from cutting interest costs to budgeting, or simply getting free one-on-one debt help.
In this guide
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Are you in debt crisis?
There are two ways to deal with problem debt. Which one is right for you depends on whether you're in what's technically defined as debt crisis, or if you just have worrying or large debts.
What counts as debt crisis depends on who you ask. There's a strong indication if you answer 'yes' to either of these...
Are you struggling to pay all basic outgoings, eg, mortgage, rent, energy bills and credit card minimums?
- or -
Are your debts (excluding your mortgage) bigger than a year’s after-tax income?
First of all, don't panic at the name. I've never yet heard of someone with debts so bad there isn't a path through them. Starting to deal with them will make you feel better and will speed up the process.
Even for those in crisis, the nuclear option, bankruptcy, is rare. Even then, as this email shows there's always hope:
I'd always been brought up to believe being a bankrupt was just one step away from being a burglar; so when it became apparent that my daughter was reeling from the pressure of unpaid debts, bankruptcy wasn't a consideration.
Her debt was that bad, that even living as a pauper she couldn't afford the interest charges. Yet still the credit card companies offered to increase her credit limit and her bank offered to consolidate her loans.
After taking the time to research the matter thoroughly and getting loads of advice, we decided bankruptcy was the best option. Although it's not a step that should be taken lightly, my daughter is alive again.
She has a genuine fresh start after seven years of increasing money pressure, and it has made the world of difference to her. Of course, she has to be careful with her limited resources but is now able to manage and live a reasonable life… and not lie awake at night worrying about money!
The fact you're here is a great start
If you're in crisis, the fact you're here and reading about it is a great start. Many people simply close their eyes to reality and there is nothing worse. Now you know there's a problem, it may feel worse than before. But the fact you're about to sort it out means in reality, you're better off.
First, read the debt help checklist
The debt help checklist below is designed primarily to prevent people from getting into debt crisis, rather than for those already there. Much of the information won't be applicable, but it's worth scanning through for five minutes to see if anything is relevant. It may allow you to meet your minimum outgoings and thus avoid your crisis snowballing out of control.
There's free one-to-one help available
The reason this guide doesn't cover crisis solutions in detail is simple. There's a range of great free, non-profit debt counselling agencies that will give you one-to-one help if you're in crisis; and no web guide can come close to that personal service. Therefore my preferred solution is to direct you to them. See the free debt counselling section.
Don't visit a debt counselling agency. Not just because they're heavily oversubscribed and should be left to those in urgent need, but more importantly, the solution they use isn’t for you.
Debt counselling involves negotiating with creditors and even bankruptcy, individual voluntary arrangements (IVAs) or debt relief orders (DROs). These are serious measures, designed for those with limited alternatives, in effect drawing a line and saying "this person is no longer within the system". The result is the debilitation of your credit score and less access to financial and some consumer products.
Instead, there are a couple of sources of help:
Take time to go through the checklist
The debt help checklist below is designed to take you through every single way to take on your debts, cut the costs, and pay them back speedily. So take some time and go through each to check whether it applies to you.
Help and support from those in the same boat
Want help, or want to talk about it? There are many people in the Debt-Free Wannabe forum in a similar boat, all supporting and helping each other reach what they call their "debt-free day", after going through the checklist. This is an amazing resource.
Many people hide their debts from friends and family, or sometimes even themselves (by not opening statements or not adding up their liabilities). If that's you, then it's time to come out of the closet. You can only sort your debts out if you know the scale of them. It may feel better not to know, but in the real world it makes things worse.
For those hiding debts from a partner, spouse, family or loved ones...
Seek help, or work out an action plan first, so you're telling them about solutions, not just problems. It's easier to break the news if you can show you're determined to improve.
It's much easier that way. Remember, if you're prepared to take action, the question isn't "will I ever get through this?", but "when will I be through this?"
Debt isn't purely a financial issue. It can be a cause or consequence of many external factors such as health, employment, family or housing problems.
Money worries can break up families, take the roof from over your children's heads, kill confidence, pile on stress, cause depression and even lead some to take their own lives. If you're feeling depressed then Samaritans is always there to help, either through its website or on the phone number 116 123 (UK).
For a full guide to handling debts when stressed, working with banks, getting free one-to-one debt counselling and specific tips for bipolar and depression sufferers, read our free Mental Health & Debt Help PDF booklet.
There are a number of debt collection agencies, whose job it is to chase down unpaid debts for other companies. Disgustingly, one time-saving tactic used is to fish for the right person by sending demands to all those with the same surname, in the hope someone will pay up.
If you're called or receive a letter asking for money, the onus is on THEM to prove that you DO owe the money and that it's genuine debt. So if the debts aren't yours, don't panic; send a letter to say you're not responsible. National Debtline has a template letter you can use.
For older debts, the law says you can't be pursued in court for civil issues six years after the event (five in Scotland).
So for a personal loan, credit/store card or bank account where there's been no contact for six or more years, a lender usually can't get a court action against you. This is increased to 12 years for mortgages/secured loans and indefinite for most tax debts.
Yet contact can mean anything, including making a payment, and that restarts the clock. Courts may also extend the time, for example, if lenders have taken reasonable steps to contact you. Some lenders still chase for the money after that period, but only a court can force you to pay.
If it's happening to you, see the National Debtline factsheet and template letter, or get help before speaking to the creditor.
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Before you start
No one ever wants to get into debt. It comes from spending money you don't have. This could be for frivolous reasons, or you may've had a horrible change in circumstances, like a partner dying, personal illness, divorce, mental health problems or losing your job (see our full Redundancy guide for hints and tips if you have lost your job).
Yet however good or bad your reason, from now on it's irrelevant. The most important thing you can do is get a disciplined handle on your spending.
Debt's a symptom, not the problem. Before tackling it, you must reduce your spending. Not only to stop you borrowing more, but to maximise repayments.
The prime aim of this guide is to cut the cost of your debts, yet if you do that without examining the bigger picture of all your spending it'll be wasted (there are some top tips later on to help).
That's why, in this guide, my prime focus is on cutting the cost of your debts themselves, rather than looking at the bigger picture of all spending.
If you're wondering how bad your debts are, as the old adage says, size isn't everything. What counts is your debt in proportion to your ability to repay.
Are your non-mortgage debts bigger than a year's after-tax salary?
If your non-mortgage debts (usually credit cards and loans) are more than a year's salary after tax, then they're quite severe. After all, that means you'd need to work more than a year to repay them, even if you had no outgoings.
Yet even if your debt is manageable, if you don't know where it came from, that's a big danger signal. Compare these two answers:
"Well I planned for and budgeted, shopped around to get the cheapest borrowing in order to buy a car/conservatory/caravan and now we're repaying it."
...and compare that with:
"Well I'm not sure really, I just used my credit card and the cost built up."
The latter is, of course, the most worrying. It means you are spending more than you earn and using borrowing as a means to fill the gap.
If you continue to do that, you'll get in a debt spiral.
Traditional debt help says 'never borrow your way out of a debt problem'. But this ignores the varying cost of different debts.
The MoneySaving approach is: "Never borrow more to get out of a debt problem."
If it’s possible to borrow more cheaply elsewhere to replace existing borrowing, then this can provide a huge boost, as lower interest rates mean more of your cash goes towards repaying the actual debt rather than just servicing the interest.
Those with big debts may save £1,000/year in interest by being more savvy with their borrowing.
The debt problems checklist
The idea of the checklist is simple: to explore every option and use each one that works for you.
Most link to more detailed guides focusing on those subjects. Once you've found something that works, don't stop. Continue down the list to see if there's anything else that will help.
Some of the suggestions only work for those with a decent credit history and not too severe debts, but it's still worth checking.
The following are a few ways to manage your cash and reduce your outgoings that are specifically useful for those with debt problems. If you've time, it's far better to go through the full Money Makeover guide.
Budget and reduce outgoings
If you have debt problems, then doing a budget is central. You have to get a handle on what you spend to future-proof your finances. The big problem with most budgets though, is... they don't work. To help, there's a special free budget planner which counters all the traditional budgeting problems. Also see our Stop Spending guide.
Earn under £73k? Check your benefits
Any family with income under £73,000 may be entitled to some form of benefit. You can do a quick benefits check-up for free in just five minutes.
Can you get help paying the mortgage?
There's a Government scheme specifically to help mortgage holders who are struggling to make monthly repayments, known as being in mortgage arrears. The scheme pays the interest (and only the interest) on your mortgage up to certain thresholds. There's also information on repossession and rent arrears.
Reclaim, reclaim, reclaim
If you have, or have had a loan, then it's crucial to check whether you were mis-sold payment protection insurance (which could've cost you £1,000s), to see if you can get the cash back.
For those in debt, it's very likely some of it has been made up of fees and charges, which you can reclaim. If you've incurred bank or credit card charges for going beyond your limits, you may be able to get the cash back. See our Reclaim Bank Charges guide for more info.
Check credit reference files (for free – or get PAID)
Before you start, it's worth ensuring your ability to get new cheap credit isn't being hampered by duff data on your credit files. This can cause rejections, but worse still, if you keep applying before it's corrected, even once the problem is fixed you can then be rejected because of all the applications. It's possible to check your credit report for free though.
Shift debts to a cheaper credit card
Suitable for: Mid to high credit scorers
Used correctly and with discipline, credit cards are the cheapest borrowing possible, especially when shifting debt to new 'balance transfer' offers. It's possible to get long-term balance transfer borrowing on a credit card for 0%. Even if you don't have a great credit score there are still attainable deals.
Cut credit card costs without new credit
Suitable for: Low-mid to high credit scorers
New credit isn't always necessary to cut credit card costs. Many credit cards allow existing customers to move other debts to them at special rates. Doing this in the correct order can create substantial savings. One MoneySaver told us that by using this technique, he cut his annual interest from £1,400 to £400 a year. See our Credit Card Shuffle guide for full info.
Check for grants and support
Some utility companies offer help if you have large arrears on your gas, electricity or water bills. You'll need to be a customer of the company, so if yours isn't listed contact it to see if it has a similar scheme.
Water: The Consumer Council for Water website has info on all the water company schemes.
Related info: Details of other grants available in the Low Income Grants guide.
Get a cheap personal loan
Standard personal loans can give you a consistent cheap debt and, for larger amounts, they're competitive with the cheapest credit cards. The fixed repayments also provide structure for those who tend to let credit card debt linger. See our Cheap Loans and Cut the Cost of Existing Loans guides for more info.
Unfortunately, those with poor credit scores won't usually get decent rates. An alternative is to look at joining a credit union. For many, they're a welcome alternative to payday loans or doorstep lending.
Credit unions are independently-run local co-operatives which aim to assist people who may not have access to financial products and services elsewhere. There are 500 in the UK providing loans, savings and current accounts, each deciding its own services and rules on who can join. Find your local credit union.
Always use savings to repay debt
The interest paid on savings is usually far less than interest charged on borrowing, so paying off debts with any savings is a serious boon.
The reason this tip comes after the main debt switching steps is that you should first try to cut the cost of your debts where you can. Then use what savings you have to pay off as much as possible – but focusing on the remaining high interest rate debts.
Worried about losing your emergency cash fund? That's old-fashioned logic and we explain why in the guide via the link above.
Danger credit card minimum repayments
The amount you repay on cards is also crucial. Minimum repayments are designed to keep you locked in for years. Make only the minimum on a standard high street card with £3,000 on it, and it'll take you 27 years to repay and cost you almost £4,000. Yet it's easy to turn this around, even if you can't afford to pay more.
Remortgage: Shift debts to a cheap deal
Suitable for: Low-mid to high credit scorers
It's worth stating that a mortgage is just a loan secured on your home. If you can't pay it back, the lender can take your house. It's due to this additional security that it can offer a cheap rate over the long term.
Cheap deals are available, especially if you've a decent amount of equity in your home. Yet it's worth working HARD to find the best deal for you.
An obvious idea is to shift credit card and other loan debts onto your mortgage if it's cheaper. On the surface this looks like a no-brainer. The debt is cheap, and as it's over a long time the amount you pay each month will be lower.
But it's not quite that simple. Technically you are shifting unsecured debt to secured debt, so there's an increased risk of losing your home if you can't repay. We explain this fully in our Remortgage guide.
Plus, it may increase your life assurance and other associated mortgage costs. And it may not actually be cheaper. Paying off over a longer period means you end up paying more interest, eg, 5% over 20 years is much more expensive than 10% over five years. New affordability checks have also made it more difficult to increase mortgage debt, so this may not be an option for you.
Don't be totally put off though. If the other routes above haven't worked, it's still worth considering. Do the numbers – especially if you've a flexible mortgage so you can pay the debts off more quickly.
Talk to your lender
It's very important to get on top of debts as soon as possible. Don't default or miss payments. It's always better to let your lender know if you're going to be unable to pay. Of course, preventative measures such as reducing interest, expenditure, and being a smart consumer are the best form of action.
Can you get help from the Government?
There are a few ways that could provide you with interest-free borrowing rather than getting any commercial debt.
Local council support schemes: Since April 2013, each local authority has been responsible for providing help to residents struggling with an emergency. This could include you or your family's health being at risk, not being able to afford to buy food, needing help to stay in your own home and coming out of care, hospital or prison.
Sadly this is a postcode lottery, each council can choose whether to offer financial help or not or who is eligible. For example, some may give furniture or food grants while others may give cash. Contact your council or just google "www.yourarea.gov.uk" to find out its procedure.
Budgeting loans and advances: This is a Government scheme providing interest free loans to those on certain income-based benefits. They can help you pay for essential items for your home or other things that you cannot pay for in a lump sum, such as clothes and furnishings.
Apply for one via the Jobcentre or via the form on Gov.uk. If you have the means to get money any other way (eg, you get universal credit or have savings), you won't qualify. You could be lent as much as £812 (if you have children – it's less if you don't), and repayments are dependent on what you can afford to pay.
Sadly, demand is extremely high at the moment and there isn't a bottomless pot of money. If the Jobcentre decides your circumstances aren't urgent or you're not struggling, you may not get anything. But if you think you qualify and really need the cash, it's definitely worth a shot.
If you weren't able to get this help, check to see if there are other grants available in the Low Income Grants guide.
Have you been rate-jacked?
Many card providers have written to their customers saying their APRs will increase by up to 10%. This is the growing phenomena of 'rate-jacking'. Under-publicised rules can be deployed to stop rate-jackers in their tracks – these include an absolute right to reject rate rises for existing debts. If you've had a letter, you have several options on how to fight back.
Carefully check secured loans
Suitable for: Very poor to poor credit scorers, but be careful
Secured or 'consolidation' loans are something to beware of. We've campaigned against many elements of them, and they can be dangerous. They are, at best, a loan of last resort and if you fail to repay it you can lose your home. Plus, unlike personal loans, the rate is variable, so it may sound cheap at the start, but soon they can push it up.
However, in a few, very limited circumstances, they're a good solution. If you've got expensive debts and some (not too substantial) credit history problems, you may be able to cut their interest rate this way.
Sale and rent back
Suitable for: Very poor to poor credit scorers, but be careful
This is where you sell your house to a private company, but are then allowed to continue living there paying rent. It seems an attractive option for some, but it's nowhere near as good as it sounds for many people.
You could only get 50% of your home's value, the rental agreement mightn't be secure and there's even a risk that the person you sell the house to may have it repossessed themselves. Consider with care.
Is an IVA or DRO right for you?
If you've seen the adverts on TV, you'd be forgiven for thinking that an individual voluntary arrangement (IVA) is the answer to all debt worries. The promise of a scheme that can write off 75-90% of your debt is not to be taken lightly.
An IVA is a serious financial arrangement and is only suitable for a small number of people. If you are in debt crisis, read our Debt Solutions guide to find out if it could be the right thing for you. It's also worth talking it through with one of the debt counselling agencies.
Since April 2009, a new type of insolvency (of which IVAs and bankruptcy are another) called a debt relief order (DRO) has been available. It's specifically aimed at those with debts of less than £20,000 who do not own a house (or have any other assets totalling over £1,000, such as savings).
To get a DRO you need to go via an approved intermediary, such as StepChange Debt Charity or many Citizens Advice bureaux. See their contact details in the free debt counselling section and check out our forum thread on debt relief orders.
Free debt counselling
If you've exhausted all the options above, check the not-for-profit Money A&E website for further ideas. If things are no better, even if you're not in debt crisis, at this point it's worth talking to one of the debt counselling agencies below.
Debt counselling: Get free one-on-one help
The right people to go to...
The aim is to find non-profit debt counselling help. In other words, a one-to-one session with someone paid to help you, not to make money out of you. Be careful not to confuse this with 'free help': many commercial companies say they're free as you're not charged directly, but you'll still pay somehow.
Stop debt collectors harrassing you for 30 days
These non-profit agencies are also the ideal people to go to if you're being harassed and bullied for payments by debt collection agencies.
An agreement between the Government and Credit Services Association, the body that represents debt collecting agents (see its Code of Practice), gives new power that guarantees debt collectors won't contact you for at least 30 days, provided you've sought debt help or can show you are trying to repay your debts using a self-help tool.
The debt counselling service will inform collectors, which will then give you a month's breathing space to get yourself on a better footing.
The places we'd suggest contacting:
Christians Against Poverty
Debt counselling agency, which specialises in helping those who are emotionally struggling too. The religious focus is why they do it, not how they do it.
- Tel: 01274 760 720
- Opening times: Different for each bureau
Civil Legal Advice
Legal advice on a small range of issues, including debt where your home is at risk. Funding cuts have restricted who can get this, but a handy checker tells you if you're eligible.
- Tel: 0345 345 4345
- Opening times: Mon - Fri 9am - 8pm, Sat 9am - 12.30pm
StepChange Debt Charity
A full debt help service is available across the UK. Online support is also available via its debt remedy tool and vulnerable people (due to age, mental health or capacity) are able to get extra help support via the free advocacy service.
- Tel: 0800 138 1111 (also free from mobiles)
- Opening Times: Mon - Fri 8am to 8pm, Sat 8am to 4pm
National Debtline provides free advice and resources to help people deal with their debts. Advice is available over the phone, online and via webchat.
- Tel: 0808 808 4000
- Opening Times: Mon - Fri 9am to 8pm, Sat 9.30am to 1pm
Business Debtline provides free advice and resources to help people deal with their finances and debts, both business and personal. Their service is available over the phone, online and via webchat.
- Tel: 0800 197 6026
- Opening Times: Mon - Fri 9am to 5.30pm
Free debt advice and solutions for those in financial difficulty. Note that PayPlan is a private company, although the advice is free.
- Tel: 0800 280 2816 (free from mobiles too)
- Opening Times: Mon - Fri 8am to 9pm, Sat 9am to 3pm
There may be a local debt help agency in your area. If so, check it is not-for-profit or a charity before signing up.
Community Money Advice: It has a map showing where you can get face-to-face debt advice – see if there's one in your area.
Money Advice Service: Its debt advice locator helps you search for a debt advice service near you.
Council: Try looking asking your council if it knows of local advice centres.
What they do to help
These counsellors use a variety of techniques, such as:
Negotiating with creditors to freeze your interest.
They will certainly show you how to prioritise the most important debts to enable you to keep food on the table and a roof over your head.
I know many people are nervous about going or calling up, but they're not judgmental. They're not there to tell you off, just to help you sort out the problem. Talking to them may help you sleep at night.
Unfortunately, the counselling services can be oversubscribed. If it takes time to get an appointment with them, use the information on their websites to start to plan.
The wrong people to go to...
Avoid any debt help or loan consolidation companies that advertise on the telly or in some newspapers. Their job is to make money out of you, plain and simple.
While in the short term their plans will make your payments lower, in the long run it'll cost you dear. Avoid them. Don't touch them. Don't go near them.
This post from the forum explains it better than we ever could:
We, my wife and I, are on a seven-year plan with StepChange Debt Charity having recently changed from a commercial debt management company after hearing Martin on Radio 2's Jeremy Vine show.
The simple action of swapping to StepChange Debt Charity has shaved over two years off the length of our plan as the money we were paying the management company now goes to our creditors instead!
Of course, that also means a financial saving of nearly eight grand over the term of the original plan's 10-year period.
This includes IVAs and debt-wiping companies. While they sound good, they're only for a few people. If either is for you, the debt counselling agencies should suggest it.
If you've used a debt management provider that's now gone out of business check the Money Advice Service website for what to do if your debt management plan has stopped.
Debt tools: free online help
A variety of info and help is available online to help manage your debt problems, so you can check out your options before contacting one of the debt agencies above.
You can't even start to sort out your finances unless you've done a detailed budget to understand where your money is going now. To help, first use our specially designed free Budget Planner. The aim is to show you whether you spend more than you earn, can afford what you currently spend and exactly how much you have left to repay any debts.
Knowing your genuine monthly outgoings will then feed into the next steps.
Debt counsellors don't have special powers, though they are taken a lot more seriously by creditors than individuals acting by themselves. If you want to, it is possible to make your own arrangements to try to freeze interest and make special repayment plans.
In general, the free help is usually a better idea. However, if you're keen to do it yourself do read the summary guide from Citizens Advice. Working through the techniques by yourself to see what's available is a useful guide, and should help you understand what the debt counsellors will do.
There are a few nice tools to help you:
Cashflow. You need to set up an account with this tool via a registered debt agency (such as National Debtline) to check it's right for you, but once you're set up you can use Cashflow to agree a payment plan with your creditors. It includes template letters and a debt adviser will be able to monitor your progress and provide some support.
Debt Analyser. This quick tool from the Debt Advice Foundation helps you work out how much of your debts you can afford to pay back, eg, priorities like mortgage or utilities and other creditors. It can then create a statement of affairs and individual creditor letters if you want to write to your lenders. The tool is best used in Excel (once saved to your computer) but there is an Open Office Calc version too.
Debt Remedy. This tool from StepChange Debt Charity helps you decide what action to take about your debts, based on your individual circumstances. It takes about 20 minutes to get through, but if at any point you get stuck, between the hours of 8am and 8pm on weekdays, you can have an online chat with a counsellor.
The service is completely free and anonymous, so is great if you want to ask a question in complete confidence.
My Money Steps. Unless you've got complicated debts (eg, a dispute or court proceedings), if you live in England, Scotland or Wales you can use My Money Steps from the Money Advice Trust to find out how to deal with your debts.
After registering (it only asks for a first name and email so can be anonymous), you're asked questions about your current situation including debts, income and expenditure. It takes around 15 minutes, you're then given a personal debt action plan with options on what you can do, including anything urgent. You can come back to it at any time to check or update.
If you're going through the scheme alone, you will almost certainly have some questions. There are a number of ways to get expert help while doing this.
StepChange Debt Charity has several counsellors answering questions in the MSE Forum on any debt issue. You can ask an open question in the discussion thread or send a private question to one of the counsellors. You need to be registered on the forum to ask a question.
Chat to a counsellor anonymously. By using the debt remedy tool, again from StepChange, you can get online help (click on the 'Get Help Now' button to get into the chat function at any time) from 8am to 8pm Monday to Friday.
Become a Debt-Free Wannabe
One important thing to remember about debt is you're not alone. Among the wider group of MoneySavers, this site has a specific community of people in various level of debt (from bankrupts to limited credit card overspending) all working together and supporting each other to get debt-free.
For support and encouragement and to post your SOA (statement of affairs) to let others who are also in debt and have been through many similar issues pick through your finances, visit the Debt-Free Wannabe board (though for specific questions about this article itself click this link).
It’s completely free and you can be anonymous
While it is necessary to register and pick your user name, only MoneySavingExpert.com itself will have access to your email – and the only reason this is needed is to stop people spamming the site. Be assured, though, you will never be contacted or sold anything, and your email will never be passed on.