Student loan interest is at 7.6%
- should I panic or pay it off?

(The answer's not what you think)

You leave university, looking forward to your future, then spot your student loan statement. There's a sinking feeling as you see £1,000s of added interest. Yet student loan statements can be dangerously misleading. They've led some into making catastrophic financial decisions. For most graduates, bizarrely, interest isn't relevant. Ignore it, and it'll go away.

This unique guide by founder Martin Lewis is for English students who started uni between 2012 and 2022, and Welsh students who started since 2012 (who have what are called Plan 2 loans). It turns most people's understanding of student loans on its head – uncovering how the interest really works, whether you should worry or not, and who should be trying to clear it. Not sure what type of loan you have – see Which student loan plan am I on?

Prefer to watch rather than read? See Martin's video below

Note: This talk was recorded in 2019, and uses the thresholds and interest rates applicable at that time. However, the theory behind repaying your student loan remains the same.

Some of the figures mentioned in this video have changed since the video was made. The following figures are the rates and thresholds for 2023:

  • The maximum maintenance loan is now £13,022
  • Graduates repay 9% of everything they earn over £27,295
  • The rate of inflation is currently 10% (as at September 2022)
  • Due to high inflation, the rate of interest was capped at 7.6% in January 2023.

The full Student Loans Decoded programme with Martin Lewis
Embedded YouTube Video

A political hot potato

Before I get into the grit of this, let me be blunt. My aim isn't to engage or enrage the wider political debate, just to ensure people don't make poor personal-finance decisions because of misunderstanding the system.

Some attack me for this. They see an explanation which sets people's minds at rest akin to a defence of the system. It isn't. While I do believe, IF we're going to ask individuals to pay towards their education, repaying loans in proportion to what you earn through the tax system is the best way, I've never been a fan of the post-2012 set-up.

I believe charging graduates above-inflation interest to fund their education is wrong in principle, even though in practice it has little impact (though with limited resources, I'd put other changes ahead of reforming it - see my 5 changes needed to student loans blog). 

The fact too that Governments can retrospectively change the system is wrong – that should be stopped. Many will know I led the charge against the retrospective hike in student loan repayments, and thankfully we won in the end.

Yet my work and my passion is to explain how to make good decisions based on the system that currently operates. And I am happy to subjugate my own views to do that. I refuse to be a party to inflating the toxicity of a system to make a political point, at the cost of making people make bad decisions. So time to forget politics and get practical...

Full info on Plan 2 loans in England and Wales

If you want more info on Plan 2 loans in both England and Wales read:

  • Student loans: England 2012-22 - for more on how the student loans, grants and finance system works for English students who started uni between 2012 and 2022.
  • Student loans: Wales - for how student loans work if you're Welsh, regardless of where in the UK you go to study.

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The seven things you need to understand about student loan interest

For students from England and Wales who started university in or after 2012, the headline student loan interest rate is usually increased in line with the Retail Prices Index (RPI), and the temporary 'Prevailing Market Rate' cap. But as RPI is currently high, from September 2023, the Government has temporarily capped the interest rate for all students and graduates at 7.6%.

This rate is higher than many mortgages, and far higher than for students from prior cohorts. So if you've got some spare cash, should you use it to pay down your loan?

The answer can be complex, so take your time to read it – print it out if needed. While repayment may seem a no-brainer, when it comes to post-2012 student loans, all is NOT usually what it seems. 

The jaw dropping fact is the only people who should be overpaying their student loan debt are high earners, free of other debts, who'll never want a mortgage or other loan. 

This will seem odd to some. After all, if you started university in 2013, having taken full tuition fees and maintenance loans each year, that's a total loan of £44,000 – and likely an already scary £5,000+ interest has been added to your statement.

Explaining why, though, needs knowledge. Yet if I were to sum it up in one sentence: 

'Student loan statements can lie, as unlike other debt, the interest added ISN'T the interest paid. That depends on future earnings. Some won't repay any interest and most won't earn enough to repay close to all of it.'

As this is counter-logical, I'm going to take you through it slowly. So let's start with my seven key facts about student loan interest (or if new to this, for a proper beginners guide read my Student loans: England 2012-22 or Student loans: Wales before that).

1. The interest added depends on what you earn

Student loan interest rates are usually based on the RPI rate of inflation (the rate at which prices rise). While studying, until the April following graduation, you're charged RPI + 3%. After that it depends on your annual earnings...

- Earn under £27,295/year. Interest rate = RPI
- Earn over £49,130/year. Interest rate = RPI + 3%
- Earn from £27,296 to £49,130. It rises gradually from RPI to RPI + 3%. For example, earn midway, so £38,213, and your rate'll be RPI + 1.5%

2. The interest rate changes every September

This change is based on the RPI rate of inflation in the year to the previous March. The RPI rate was 9% in March 2022, but due to high levels of inflation, the Government has stepped in and capped the interest rate from January 2024 at 7.6%. 

Of course, if in any year March's RPI is anomalously high, you'll pay a high rate for the year – but if it's anomalously low, it'll be cheap for the year. As student loans are repaid over a long period, things usually even themselves out.

English and Welsh student loan interest rates since 2012


2012/13 3.6% 6.6%
2013/14 3.3% 6.3%
2014/15 2.5% 5.5%
2015/16 0.9% 3.9%
2016/17 1.6% 4.6%
2017/18 3.1% 6.1%
2018/19 3.3% 6.3%
2019/20 2.4% 5.4%
2020/21 2.6% 5.6%
2021/22 1.5%

4.1% (from 1 Oct 2021)

4.4% (from 1 Jan 2022)

4.5% (from 1 Mar 2022)

2022/23 7.1% (from 1 June 2023) 

7.1% (from 1 June 2023) 

7.3% (from 1 Sept 2023)

PS: Cynics may rightly note that the Government uses the usually higher RPI inflation measure to dictate student loan interest, and often the lower Consumer Prices Index (CPI) rate to dictate any state pension or benefits increases.

3. Only when the rate is above RPI is there any 'real' cost

Inflation is the rate at which prices rise – there are arguments about measuring it – but in theory, if you're charged the rate of inflation on a loan, then the loan itself doesn't cost you anything. An example should help...

So the 'real' interest cost to you is the interest above inflation. How much above inflation you are charged depends on what you earn, as explained in point 2.

4. The interest doesn't change what you repay each year

You become eligible to repay your student loan in the April after you leave University. It's worth noting that over 30,000 a year mistakenly repay before that (though if it's happened to you, you can claim the money back – see Student loan reclaiming for how).

From this point, students must repay loans at a rate of 9% of everything they earn above £27,295 each year – or more technically £2,274 a month. So if you earn £32,295, that's £5,000 more than the threshold, so you'll repay 9% of that – which is £450 a year.

This means the amount you owe (the borrowing plus interest) never has an impact on what you repay each year. I know people really struggle with this, so let's pick out of the air a current salary of £37,295 (purely done for maths ease as it's £10,000 above the threshold) and look at how different levels of borrowing impact your repayments – though the same principle applies whatever you earn.

Student loan & interest: £20,000. Your earnings: £37,295.
As you repay 9% of everything above £27,295 your annual repayment is £900.

Student loan & interest: £50,000. Your earnings: £37,295. 
As you repay 9% of everything above £27,295 your annual repayment is £900.

To get silly to prove a point: student loan & interest: £1 billion. Your earnings: £37,295. 
As you repay 9% of everything above £27,295 your annual repayment is £900.

As you can see, changing what you owe – even to the absurd level of £1 billion – simply doesn't impact your repayments.

The repayment threshold is supposed to rise each year in line with average earnings. However the Government announced at the beginning of 2022 that the threshold will be frozen at £27,295 for 2022/23. This means university leavers will pay around £110/yr more than they would've done if the the threshold has been increased in line with earnings (4.6%).

The repayment threshold will begin to increase annually by RPI from April 2025.

Freeze to the repayment threshold in 2022/23

Martin Lewis's instant reaction to student loan repayment threshold freezes
Embedded YouTube Video

5. The loan is wiped after 30 years regardless

You stop repaying the earlier of when you die, when you've cleared the initial borrowing plus interest, or 30 years from the April after you graduated. Even if you've not paid a penny back, for those who started in or after 2012, the loan is wiped after 30 years (see when the student loan wipes for the earlier cohorts of students).

If you haven't fully repaid, that doesn't mean you've defaulted – this system is designed so you contribute in proportion to your financial success after university (see FAQs for more on that). Earn less and you pay less – financially it's a no-win, no-fee system.

6. For most people the amount you owe is irrelevant

This is where things really start to veer away from the obvious. As I've explained, the amount owed (the borrowing plus interest) doesn't change what you repay each year.

In fact the only thing the amount owed changes is how long you'll repay for. The more you owe, the less likely you are to clear the debt within the 30 years. And crucially...

The Institute For Fiscal Studies estimates 83% with English student loans won't clear the debt (including interest) within the 30 years.

This bizarrely means, for most people, when analysing the financial impact of their outstanding loan, the price tag of what you owe – for example, the borrowing + interest – has very little relationship with 'the cost', which is the 9% of everything earned above £27,295/year for 30 years.

That simple fact is crucial. In many ways the biggest damage of student loans is psychological, not financial. Many are petrified of the huge "debt hanging over me", even though the system really doesn't work like that.

It's one reason student loan statements are so damaging. For most they bear little resemblance to your actual situation. I'm currently working on a suggested alternative statement which puts people in a better position. 

Most people should not look at this like a debt and instead consider it like an additional graduate tax. Indeed it's collected that way, through the payroll, just like tax. I'm not saying it's cheap, just that this is an accurate evaluation of the cost. Look at it like this...

Effective marginal tax rates 2023/24


Up to £12,570 No tax No tax
Between £12,570 & £27,294 20% 20%
Between £27,295 & £50,270 20% 29%
Between £50,270 & £125,140 40% 49%
Over £125,141 45% 54%

In fact, I very much believe calling it a student loan is a misnomer, and the result of that is confusing, dangerous and leads to bad decisions. I campaigned for years that, akin to similar systems in other countries, we should rename it a graduate contribution. Though I'll stick with the language of loans and borrowing within this article for consistency with the official terms.

An important note if you're Welsh

Welsh students prior to 2018, may have had part of their tuition fees paid for by the Welsh Government. For those, that means the amount borrowed is usually substantially less. For all students since 2018, tuition fees are similar (or the same if you study outside of Wales) as for English students.

But the funding available for living costs is much simpler - and more generous - for Welsh students, compared to other UK nations.

And from 2010/11, Student Finance Wales gives full-time students up to £1,500 off their maintenance loan. The money will automatically be deducted from your loan balance once you've made your first repayment (including voluntary payments). The best way to maximise this is by making a one-off voluntary repayment of £5 (that's the minimum) as soon as you've received at least £1,500 in a maintenance loan. That way, you'll reduce your loan balance and so long term the interest be lower. Find out more here.

But despite these perks, tuition fees and maintenance loans do quickly add up - meaning Welsh students can leave uni with similar debts to their English counterparts. In general the student finance system is very similar for both countries.

In this guide we've focused on English examples. As Welsh students tend to have lower borrowing, you will need to earn less to repay in the 30 years before the debt wipes. Factor that in when you're thinking about repaying.

7. Changes will alter how interest is applied and allow for up-to-date balances

Those who are employed repay their student loan through their wages, and will continue to do so. However, since April 2019, HMRC and the Student Loans Company have been sharing data on a weekly rather than a yearly basis, which means:

  • You're less likely to overpay. As the Student Loans Company will now get weekly updates on how much you've paid, it will know sooner when you've paid off your loan and it can tell HMRC (and your employer) to stop taking money. 

  • Interest will be applied more precisely. Even if the amount you repaid differed from month to month, they would be accredited to your student loans account as if you'd made 12 equal instalments. Your interest would then be calculated as if you'd repaid this way. The changes mean that actual repayments can be recorded so the interest can be calculated on the balance you still owe every month.

  • You'll be able to see your up-to-date balance. Previously, you would've had to provide the SLC with information from recent payslips to learn your balance - but it's now working on improving its website so you can see an up-to-date balance. This element will likely be fully live by autumn.

For more information on this, see our Hurrah! Student loan accounts to be updated weekly MSE News story. 

If you don't respond to SLC when they ask for information, they'll lump you with RPI plus 3% no matter how much you earn. Keep on top of your student loan admin - or it'll cost you.

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Many graduates won't come close to repaying the full amount they owe

Yes, you did read that title correctly. Some with a mathematical bent will have probably worked out why from the seven need-to-knows; if not let me explain.

Effectively, you only pay any interest if you earn enough to have cleared the amount you originally borrowed within the 30 years. If not, you're just repaying the amount borrowed, not the interest.

Let's work up the income scale here – try not to just jump to your expected income level, as the early examples are useful to understand the concept

  • Extremely low-income graduate earners
    Salary under £27,295 for their working life.

    Someone who went to university and then never earned over the repayment threshold within the 30 years wouldn't repay a penny of what they borrowed, never mind interest.

  • Low to mid-income graduate earners 
    Earning a decent chunk over £27,295 for their working life.

    Even this will often not come close to clearing the typical £50,000ish borrowed for full tuition fees and maintenance loans within 30 years. Therefore the loan is interest-free and often means you actually repay less than the ticket-price you were charged for your education - especially once you factor in inflation. As a simplified proof of concept...

    Someone earning £31,000 a year is repaying £333 a year. Even if the repayment threshold stayed the same (and it's set to rise in line with inflation), over 30 years that's around £9,990 – that doesn't even repay typical tuition fees, never mind the living loan or interest.

    Of course inflation and career progression mean that someone staying on the same income for 30 years is unlikely. This is just to explain the idea.
  • Middle income graduate earners
    Starting salaries £20,000 - £30,000, above-inflation pay rises after.

    The interest rate usually depends on earnings, so until recently you could assume that you wouldn't have to pay the maximum rate for the first decade or so of your career, as for that you needed to earn above £49,130. However, due to the high levels of inflation right now (currently around 10%), all existing students and graduates are being charged 7.6%, irrelevant of what they're earning.

    But it's important to remember, at this level of earnings you likely won't repay all of the original borrowing plus the interest added within the 30 years before the debt wipes.

    This means while you may pay some interest, most won't come close to paying all the interest added to their account, let alone all of it at the maximum interest rate.
  • The top 20%-ish of graduate earners
    Starting salary £40,000+ and above-inflation rises, or lower but with very big pay rises later.

    As our student loan calculator shows, to clear the whole debt and interest within 30 years you need to be a consistently big earner. If so, you're likely to have close to the maximum interest added, and you're likely to pay it too. If you're in this category, then OVERPAYING IS LIKELY TO BE A DECENT CONSIDERATION.

Now please understand, this is an art, not science. I've plotted salaries as if they always grow constantly. But someone could be on a low salary for 10 years and then see it rocket after that. Or vice versa. But it gives you the right scales of magnitude.

There are a couple of other factors too, as well as your earning, that can impact whether you're more or less likely to clear the debt within the 30 years (and thus pay all the interest). These are...

Borrowing less initially means you're more likely to repay within 30 years. Lower borrowing is usually because of a smaller 'living loan', because you didn't take all you were allowed, you lived at home so less was offered, you were a part-time student, or you had higher family income which means you were entitled to less (see my hidden student loan parental contribution blog on that).

Time off work means you're less likely to clear within 30 years. This could be due to career breaks, going part-time, periods of unemployment or reduced earnings, maternity and paternity leave etc.

The five things to consider before overpaying your student loan

You're allowed to pay extra off your student loan, without penalties, whenever you want. And with what looks scary interest added to statements, this is superficially appealing to many who have spare cash.

The decision for previous generations of students was pretty easy. Most could simply compare the interest rate with what they would earn saving. Yet as I hope you've understood so far, that doesn't apply to most post-2012 starters...

It's dangerous to use the headline rate of 7.6% to compare student loans to savings – as most graduates won't pay this.

So if you can overpay the loan, here's what you need to consider first (if you haven't read the sections above before getting here, it really is worth doing).

1. Will overpaying actually make any difference?

For overpaying to have any impact, you need to repay enough that it'd lower the amount you repay within the 30 years. Here's an example to explain the concept (I've kept the sums based on this year's repayment threshold of 9% above £27,295, and ignored inflation, interest and pay rises to keep it simple).

Let's imagine you've built up £10,000 in savings and after a few years you use that to reduce your outstanding student loan balance, because you're worried about the 'interest building up'.

As you can see in this case, overpaying £10,000 makes absolutely no difference to your repayments over 30 years, so paying it has no gain for you whatsoever.

In fact, someone recently contacted me who'd done just this on receiving an inheritance. A year after she lost her job, had read this article and realised it was a futile act, and she won't gain at all from overpaying. She contacted me to ask if she could reclaim her cash. Sadly, I had to say no. 

Thus overpaying is just throwing money away as it won't reduce what you pay. And that's likely to be the case UNLESS you're...

a) A high earner, likely to clear the loan and interest in less than 30 years. Use the MSE student loan calculator to get an idea of whether you're likely to be in this category.

b) Someone overpaying a very large lump sum, which'll radically reduce the amount owed, so you can clear it within the 30 years or even clear it entirely straightaway.

If these don't apply, overpaying the loan won't save you any money. So don't do it (if you're worried this means you're 'defaulting on the debt', see the Is this encouraging people not to repay debt? FAQ).

From here on I'll assume overpaying is likely to reduce your actual payments over 30 years.

2. How much interest will you actually repay?

To find if overpaying is worth it, it's worth trying to get an idea of how much of the interest you're actually likely to be repaying. Using the MSE student loan calculator can give you an idea, but remember it has to make many assumptions – so is a rough indicator only. Here's how to interpret the results...

a) Is the 'what you repay amount' less than your initial borrowing? If so, you won't be repaying any interest at all, as you won't repay even what you initially borrowed. 

b) Is the 'amount converted into today's money' less than your initial borrowing? That means you're paying less interest than inflation, which means in economic terms, holding onto the loan means it's shrinking.

Going back to my shopping baskets analogy... if you borrow £10,000 which buys 100 shopping baskets' worth of money, and inflation increases the price of those shopping baskets to £15,000, but you only need repay £14,000 in real terms, the loan has shrunk.

In both cases, the gain from repaying is likely to be very limited. If you are repaying more than this, so the 'total in today's money' is higher than your original borrowing, then that difference is the real cost of interest to you of the loan.

3. How certain are you of future earnings?

By definition, as this guide is for those who started university in 2012 or after, there's a long time to go before you hit the 30-year write-off.

So think about whether you're sure you'll stay in your current profession, could you opt out? Take a pay cut? Take time out to bring up a child? 

The less certain you are of future solid strong earnings, the more you should hedge towards not overpaying the loan as the downside risk is bigger than the upside gain. If you don't repay the loan and should've done, it's because you'll be a higher earner. Yet overpay now and then have a salary drop, and you may've ended up throwing money away.

4. Will you need other borrowing in future?

Anyone with other expensive debts should certainly pay them off before touching the student loan. Though even if you're debt-free elsewhere, remember...

Use money to overpay your student loan now and you risk needing to borrow it back elsewhere in future.

You might have no debts right now. But it's possible you will have in future, perhaps for a mortgage, a car loan or to set up a business.

By paying off your student loan quicker than necessary now, rather than saving that off, you may need to borrow that amount back via some commercial form of lending later.

It's worth noting if you unwittingly overpay your student loan, for example as the deductions were taken wrongly, you can reclaim that money. However, if you voluntarily overpay, you cannot ever get that cash back.

Structurally, student loans are the best possible type of lending. You pay in proportion to your income, and if your income drops, so do your repayments. There's no impact on your credit score. They're paid via the payroll (or self-assessment if you're self-employed), so there are no debt collectors chasing and it ends after 30 years regardless. No mortgage, credit card or other loan comes close.

Looking purely at the interest rate – as opposed to the interest you actually repay – since September, many mortgage rates will undercut the maximum student loan interest rate (see mortgage best-buys comparison). Yet the student loan rate changes annually and it isn't always like this. In recent years, for many with middle incomes, the student loan has often been cheaper than most mortgage Standard Variable Rates, though costlier than the best new mortgage deals.

Certainly compared to most personal loans available to new graduates (who tend to have lower credit and affordability scores) student loans are not expensive. Though of course nothing has a lower rate than 0% credit cards, used right – but they're for much smaller amounts.

So if future borrowing's likely, consider building up savings now, rather than speeding up student loan repayments, so you need to borrow less from the bank in future.

5. Could you earn more in a savings account?

My normal answer to 'Should I pay off debts with savings?' is if the debt costs more than the savings earn – clear the debt. And if you use that logic well, ditching the student loan is a no-brainer...

- Student loans charge 7.6% during the 2023/24 academic year.
- The top fixed savings accounts currently pay around 5%, whereas top easy-access accounts pay around 2.75%.

If only it were that simple. Firstly, the student loan rate changes annually – it may get cheaper (or more expensive) afterwards. Indeed, a few years ago many 2012 starters were charged less than savings paid.

Yet even if we ignore that and go on current figures, the only people who can actually do the simple job of comparing savings and student loan interest are the 17% of people who will likely fully clear their debt within 30 years. So...

... if you're 100% certain you'll be a big earner for the next 30 years, then at current rates you would be better off paying off this loan.

If not, then frankly it's very difficult to compare, as your savings interest won't be paying close to the headline student loan rate, if anything at all. Even if you are overpaying a lot off your student loan, you have to contrast that against what you would repay over the next 30 years, to see if it'd save you enough to justify it. Any more clarity than that would require a crystal ball, I'm afraid.

So after all this, let me revert to my original point. For big earners, likely to work most of the next 30 years, free of all other debts, unlikely to want or need to borrow anywhere else – overpaying will likely save you money.

For everyone else, I'm tempted to say 'rip up your student loan statement' – it's just frightening and irrelevant. Just accept you'll pay a 9% increased tax-like burden.

I say "tempted", because the Student Loans Company might be writing to you to ask for information, which if you don't supply it puts you on the 'penalty interest rate' (also known as the non-compliance interest rate - which adds another 3%). Even though most won't actually pay any interest at all, it's still best to avoid for safety. And of course, because things can change, as you'll read below.

Student loan FAQs

Well that's my essay on this handed in. I'm not brave enough to ask you to grade it. Yet I know many questions will come up, so let me try to pre-empt them.

  • Would clearing the student loan make it easier for me to get a mortgage?

    Student loans don't go on your credit report, so don't have an impact on your credit score when getting a mortgage. However, they do impact your ability to repay – if you're earning over £27,295 – because you have lower take-home income.

    This comes into play in your affordability score, rather than your credit score (check both as part of the free MSE Credit Club). And its big impact is that the likely amount you can borrow is reduced; though its effect is relatively trivial compared to the big factor – what do you earn?

    Of course, if everything else were equal, you've a better chance of getting a bigger mortgage if you're student-loan free. But the practical reality is, to clear the student loan you'd be using savings (I'll assume you're not considering borrowing elsewhere to clear it – that's not a good idea at any time, and especially before a mortgage).

    A bigger deposit is crucial for first-time buyers to get a cheap mortgage (see my free First Time Buyers' Mortgage guide). For every extra 5% of the property's value you manage to save, up to 40%, rates tend to get cheaper. So foregoing a bigger deposit to get rid of your student loan would likely cost you. Especially as saving in a Lifetime ISA or Help to Buy ISA means the state will boost your deposit by 25%.

    Also, if you're planning to just overpay a little off your student loan, rather than clear it entirely, this won't change the amount of student loan you repay a year (as that's based on what you earn). So in the short term it's unlikely to help you in the mortgage stakes anyway.

  • Isn't there a risk the Government will change the system?

    Yes. There's always that risk. My explanations here are based on the current system.

    Any major, negative, retrospective structural changes to the student loan system are unlikely. Student loans have been running in various guises since 1991 and are all in the same general shape they were when people signed up to them.

    More likely than structural change is that some of the thresholds and amounts will differ to what's expected. We've already seen this when the Government froze the repayment threshold at £21,000.

    In a letter to the Prime Minister at the time, I explained the biggest issue with that small change wasn't the cost, but that it'd knock future faith in the student loan system, leaving many asking "How can we trust it in future?" And indeed that's happened.

    Thankfully, in October 2017, after much lobbying, the Government U-turned and announced it'd increase the repayment threshold to £25,000 – not a small concession. However, the Government froze it again at £27,295 from April 2022 until April 2025.

    The repayment threshold will begin to increase annually by RPI from April 2025 (it has previously been increasing in line with the average earnings growth).

    Yet the fact it has played around with the thresholds is concrete proof things can change. 

    As I've already explained, for most, student loan repayments work like an additional income tax, and indeed this is another symptom of that. Yet for most, unless those changes were extremely radical, it still wouldn't greatly change the fact of whether it is worth overpaying.

    So my view is, if under the current system it's likely overpaying the loan would waste money, the chance of that being true is greater than the risk of the system changing so that you should've cleared it.

    Having said that, I don't have a crystal ball so nothing is guaranteed. It could even move the other way – after all a new Government could scrap all student loans, retrospectively, and that would mean if you had overpaid it would have been pointless.

  • Isn't what you're saying tantamount to encouraging people not to pay their debts?

    No, I think that interpretation is a fundamental misunderstanding of this system.

    Our form of 'income contingent' student loans is explicitly designed so that people should contribute to their education in proportion to the financial success achieved (university is of course much more than just about boosting earnings). And that the state will subsidise those who don't – for example, many nurses and teachers won't repay in full. So not repaying isn't a default; it's that you're not supposed to repay.

    That's part of the problem of using the language of debt. People feel they're doing something wrong by not repaying. Calling it a graduate contribution system would improve this.

  • If 83% of students are predicted not to repay, who foots the bill?

    This is a loan from the state, so the result is the state doesn't get repaid. Though remember the 83% figure is the number of people who won't FULLY REPAY – far, far less won't repay anything at all. Already graduates who started since 2012 have paid back £200 million and they've only been out of uni a couple of years at most.

    Initially in 2012, the system was set up with the anticipation that under 50% wouldn't fully repay. They got that wrong, and now it's predicted to be far higher. It was 77% just before the announcement of the repayment threshold increasing to £25,000, and is now 83%. That means this has been nowhere near as successful for the public purse as it was supposed to be.

    Yet it still does mean compared to before tuition fees, when the Government simply paid universities by a direct grant, billions are now paid back. Whether that's enough to justify the tuition fees, or if it's caused inflationary issues on universities' costs, is for the politicians to debate.

    PS: I've one more thought on this, though it may make your brain hurt. The problem with saying the "taxpayer foots the bill" for what's unpaid, or "the state makes a loss if student loans aren't repaid", is that the whole concept of what SHOULD be repaid is arbitrary.

    For example, one way to increase the number of people fully repaying would be to cut the interest rate to the rate of inflation (as it used to be before 2012). Do that and more people would repay in full within 30 years, thus the 'loss' would be reduced. Yet that would mean the total amount the state received would be less, so the taxpayer would actually foot a bigger bill.

    Conversely and perversely, if interest rates were increased, and for ease let's be ridiculous and say to RPI + 100%, then almost no graduates would fully clear the loan within 30 years, so the 'loss' would be huge, but the state would take in far more, leaving the taxpayer far better off.

  • Will the sale of the student loan book affect this?

    Currently there are no plans to sell post-2012 student loans, but I think it's likely if we continue with a Conservative administration that it will happen. Having said that, the promise is that won't change the practicals for students. You can see my full analysis on this in the letter I wrote as evidence to the House of Lords on the impact of the student loan sale on repayment terms.

  • Does the same logic apply to new students on whether they should take the loan at all?

    Yes, that's very similar. The key question is if you have the cash to pay upfront, would it actually save you money – and that mostly depends on how much you'd be likely to repay (ie, future earnings), not to borrow.

    Taking an extreme example, if you never earn enough to repay anything, paying upfront would be a total waste of time. And even if not, building a mortgage deposit is likely to be a bigger financial priority than not taking a student loan and I'd save for that first.

    I go into more detail on this in the Should I pay tuition fees upfront? guide, though it's now a few years since I wrote that.

  • How do you actually repay the student loan?

    This depends on your work status...

    • Employees: It's automatically taken from the payroll like tax. HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) then passes the cash to the Student Loans Company (SLC) every March.

      If you earn over £27,295 and repayments aren't being deducted, it's YOUR responsibility to inform your employer. Ensure you keep evidence of having done this as otherwise it can mean you pay a fine. 

      While we're on this, if you're new to paying tax, make sure you check your tax code – you could be owed £1,000s if it's wrong.

    • Self-employed / those with other income doing self-assessment tax forms: You're responsible for notifying HMRC of payments due for student loans when you do your self-assessment form (just like you're responsible for telling it of tax due).

      If you have additional income of £2,000+ from savings interest, pensions or shares and dividends, this will also be treated as part of your income so you'll need to repay 9% of that too (provided this plus income is over £27,295) via self-assessment.

    • To pay more: If overpaying is right for you, the SLC has a range of voluntary repayment options.
  • Do I still have to repay my student loan if I move abroad?

    The answer is yes. The student loan has deliberately been set up as a contract, not a tax, so that if you're no longer living in the UK you still need to repay it.

    The rules state you're still obliged to repay 9% of all earnings above the local equivalent of £27,295/year. Not doing so could lead to substantial penalties. And this local equivalent isn't just a currency translation, it factors in the cost of living in your country, so it can be radically different.

    If we ignore the moral obligation to repay the state for the education it provided you, the real question here isn't "Do I have to?" but "How can they make me?"

    This is an issue of enforcement. Certainly if you temporarily leave the UK and come back having missed some payments, expect to be pursued. If you move abroad permanently, never to return, there may be no attempt to pursue you in a foreign court. But there are no guarantees of that.

    What's more, the Government has said it will chase people who move abroad more thoroughly than it has in the past – through 'sanctions' and prosecution.

    Further information on this is available on the Student Loans Company website, though it's a bit patchy in parts.

  • What about students elsewhere in the UK?

    As the borrowing is much lower, due to lower tuition fees, they're more likely to repay before the debt clears. Therefore it works more similarly to the pre-2012 student loan system, so for help read the main Should I pay off my student loan? guide.

  • Can teachers get extra financial support?

    Yes, there are three types of financial help available for some teachers.

    We explain each below, but bear in mind that you can't receive both the early-career payment and the levelling up payment in the same tax year, so you'll need to choose. However, you can apply for one of these two schemes while also claiming back part of your student loan, if you’re eligible.

    The only catch is that for each of these schemes, HMRC treats the payments as income, so will deduct a student loan repayment from the amount you get.

    1. Claim back part of your student loan each tax year. If you completed your initial teacher training (ITT) course between 1 September 2013 and 31 August 2021 and are still employed as a teacher at a state-funded secondary school in England, you may be able to claim back some of your student loan repayments.

      You need to have spent at least 50% of your contracted hours teaching biology, chemistry, physics, computing or languages in a school within an eligible local authority between 6 April 2021 and 5 April 2022 to apply.

      If your application's approved, HMRC will reimburse all the student loan repayments you made between 6 April 2021 and 5 April 2022.

      For more info and to apply, see this page on the Government website.

    2. Early-career payments of up to £7,500. Between September and January each year, eligible chemistry, languages, mathematics and physics teachers can apply for early-career payments between of £2,000 and £7,500.

      How much you can get depends on what subject you teach, where your school is, and when you qualified as a teacher. You’ll be eligible if you started a postgrad ITT course or completed an undergrad ITT course in:

      – mathematics between 1 September 2018 and 31 August 2021
      – physics, chemistry or languages between 1 September 2020 and 31 August 2021

      You also need to be employed as a teacher in a state-funded secondary school in England when you apply for the payment. Some local authorities also offer an uplift payment to boost what you get.

      For more details and to apply, see this Government webpage.

    3. Levelling up premium payments of up to £3,000. If your ITT course started (or your relevant undergrad course finished) between 1 September 2017 and 31 August 2022, and you spend at least 50% of your contracted hours teaching mathematics, physics, chemistry or computing in one of the state-funded secondary schools listed on the website, you could claim up to £3,000 a year in your first five years of teaching.

      Check if you're eligible and apply here on
  • What happens if I'm on more than one plan type?

    How much you repay depends on which of your plan types has the lowest repayment threshold and whether or not you have a Postgraduate Loan.

    For example, you could have Plan 1 and Plan 2 loans, or Plan 1 and Plan 5 loans, or Plan 2 and Plan 5 loans.

    If you don't have a Postgraduate Loan - You’ll repay 9% of your income over the lowest threshold out of the plan types you have. You’ll only have a single repayment taken each time you get paid, even if you’re on more than one plan type.

    If you have a Postgraduate Loan - You’ll repay 6% of your income over the Postgraduate Loan threshold (£21,000 a year) and 9% of your income over the lowest threshold for any other plan types you have.

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