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Credit Scores

Bust myths & improve your score

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Martin and Amy | Edited by Johanna

Updated February 2018

Risk vs reward

Everyone should take time to manage and boost their credit score. It's no longer just about whether you can get mortgages, credit cards and loans, it can also affect mobile phone contracts, monthly car insurance, bank accounts and more.

Yet in the UK, credit ratings are shrouded in myths. This is a guide to everything you need to know about credit checks and crucially, how to boost your credit score – so you're likely to be accepted for products & get the best rates too. PLUS our revolutionary free Credit Club gives you a free Experian Credit Score and explains what it means in the real world.

We've got another guide if you're looking for how to check your credit report for free.

What is a credit rating? Plus nine other things you need to know...

The world of credit ratings is rife with misinformation and misunderstanding – even some national newspapers have got it wrong on occasion. Much of it's because lenders don't want it understood, and credit reference agencies want you to think it works a certain way so they can sell you extra products based on your fear.

Here's what you really need to know to debunk the myths...

You DON'T have a universal credit rating

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There's no such thing as a blacklist. This is a myth. In the UK, there's no universal credit rating or score, and there's no blacklist of banned people.

Credit scoring is about trying to predict your future behaviour

This is not easy if you've little credit history. When you apply for a product, a 'credit check' is done. In practice, this means lenders pour all the data they have on you into a complicated algorithm. It's an attempt to predict your future behaviour based on what you've done in the past.

It's as much about 'will you make the lender money' as it is about risk

What lenders know about you!

Many people write to us incensed after rejection – "I've a perfect credit score, I've never missed a payment, why on earth did they reject me?"

What lenders really know about you

It's important to be aware of exactly what lenders know when you apply, so you can present yourself in the best light. Importantly, it's more than just what's on your credit file.

What lenders don't know about you – ignore conspiracy theories

Many people believe every element of their life is on their credit reference files, but actually it's mainly just a strict set of financial data. Though over recent years, the information contained on them has grown.

Your credit file dictates the product and the rate you'll get

In the past 10 years the credit landscape has almost completely shifted towards 'rate for risk'. This means almost every credit provider on the market uses your credit file to not only dictate whether they'll provide you with credit, but also what rate you'll get.

'I am not a number, I'm a free man!' – Er, not with credit scoring

We don't have a right to be lent money. While the Government pushes lenders to offer more credit, especially in the small business and mortgage worlds, ultimately it's still a commercial decision from firms about whether they want to lend.

Rejection can come from fraud scoring as well as credit scoring

When you apply for a product, it isn't just a case of assessing whether you're desirable, but also checking the application is legitimate. Therefore, as well as the credit reference agencies, lenders also use completely separate anti-fraud agencies to try to weed out problems. The two big ones work in very different ways.

Credit reference companies will try to sell you a credit score

Don't take it too seriously. Your credit reference agency credit file is important. Its credit score isn't.

Credit score vs. Credit file

Credit scoring affects far more than you think

Since the credit crunch started, way back in 2007, the importance of credit scoring to our financial lives has grown rapidly. Here's a quick rundown of how credit scoring affects major financial areas.

Boost your credit rating

27 tips to boost your credit rating

Each lender scores you differently, so this is more art than science, especially because lenders are tight-lipped about what they're looking for. Yet there are practical things you can do that should help both reduce credit scoring and fraud scoring rejection.

PS. Have you just jumped here and ignored the 'how credit scoring works' bit above? If you can, it's worth reading that first. Knowing how the system works is the best way to boost your score.

The MSE Credit Club – which includes Experian Credit Report

MSE’s Credit Club

Our revolutionary free Credit Club helps you keep a track of your credit record. You can sign up here - here's what it does:

  • We've launched the ability to get your full Experian Credit Report for FREE within Credit Club. See our full details on how this will work.
  • You'll get a free Experian Credit Score. This will give you an indicator of how lenders see you when assessing you for credit applications.
  • Our unique affordability score. This clever tool will help you work out how much you can afford to borrow, using calculations based on your income and estimated spending.
  • Our unique Credit Hit Rate – this will show you your chances of success, expressed as a percentage, of grabbing our top cards and loans.
  • Eligibility tool to show your best credit deals. It reveals the likelihood of you getting top credit cards or loans.
  • Wallet workout tool to check if you’re on the best credit products for YOU.
  • Your credit profile explained. It shows the key factors affecting your score and how to improve them.

Boosting your credit score is a bit like going on the pull

As each lender has its own bespoke criteria, think of it like a beauty parade. You need to make yourself as attractive as possible to lenders, in the hope they'll pick you out of the line-up...

Check your files annually or before any major application

Your credit reference files, held at Equifax, Experian and Callcredit, contain enormous amounts of data on you. Errors happen and can kill applications, so it's important to check your files regularly and to go through them line by line to check nothing's wrong.

Register to vote or you're unlikely to get any credit

If you're not on the electoral roll, it's unlikely you'll get any credit, so sign up immediately. Don't wait for the annual reminder, apply at any time on

Not eligible to vote in the UK? Add proof of residency

If you aren't eligible to vote in the UK so can't be on the electoral roll (mainly non-Commonwealth and non-EU foreign nationals), send all three credit reference agencies proof of residency (utility bills, a UK driving licence, etc) and ask them to add a note to verify this. This should help you get credit.

Some foreign nationals (from Republic of Ireland, some Commonwealth countries and EU citizens) are allowed to vote in local elections, and therefore can be registered on the electoral roll in the normal way.

Never miss or be late on any credit repayments – it can have a disproportionate hit

Sounds obvious? Well, it is. Even if you're struggling, try not to default or miss payments, it can have a disproportionate hit. Doing this once or twice could cause problems that can cost you for years. Defaults in the previous 12 months will hurt you the most.

Don't let your partner or flatmate's score wreck yours!

It's not usually whether you kiss, hold hands, live together or even are married that links your finances, it's simply whether you have a joint financial product.

If you've split up from someone, ensure you financially delink too

If you split up with someone you've had joint finances with (or just moved out from your flat-share), once your finances are no longer linked, write to the credit reference agencies and ask for a notice of disassociation. You can also call up or find the forms online.

This will stop their credit history affecting yours in the future. However, the agencies say they can't do this if you still have a joint account open with the ex. The account'll need to be closed or transferred to an individual account before you can do it. For example, a joint loan would have to be paid off before a notice be given.

Minimise credit applications by using the free eligibility calculators

The only way to know if you'll get accepted for a product is to apply. Yet that leaves a footprint on your credit file, and too many of those, especially in a short space of time, can hurt future applications. This is a catch-22, as if you get rejected, or the rate you're offered is crap, you'll want to keep applying.

Check addresses on old accounts

This may sound bizarre, but a wrong address can have a disproportionate impact. If you had, for example, an old mobile phone contract or credit card that you don't use any more, but is technically still listed as active on your credit reference files, then check the address is your current one.

Don't 'spend' your applications too often

Space out your applications

Every time you apply for a credit product (be it a credit card, contract mobile phone, car insurance paid annually or more), it adds a footprint to your file for a year.

Always check your credit files after rejection

There's a nightmare scenario you need to avoid called the rejection spiral. It works like this:

Use a credit (re)build card to build a history & restore past issues

Credit scoring is all about trying to predict your future behaviour based on your past history. Those with a poor history do poorly; but so do those with little credit history, as then predicting is tough.

Time it right – when you apply can have a big impact

Problems such as county court judgments and bankruptcy stay on your file for six years, and data about applications for one year. So if you're near a time when old issues will lapse, holding off applying can help. Check your credit file for details.

Don't withdraw cash on credit cards

This is both expensive to do, as interest is higher and you're charged it even if you repay in full each month. Crucially, many lenders see it as evidence of poor money management skills.

The one exception is withdrawing cash on a specialist card abroad. See Overseas Credit Card ATM Withdrawals for full info and why they're not too bad.

Make paying your rent boost your credit score

Do you pay your rent on time? If so, there's a free scheme which millions of private renters can use to make paying rent boost their credit rating.

Private tenants can opt into the free Rental Exchange scheme. Launched in March 2016, it records your rental payments and sends the results to credit reference agency Experian. We explain the scheme in our new Make your rent boost your credit file guide.

How does it work?

You pay your rent to a third party called Credit Ladder. Credit Ladder passes on your payment to your landlord or lettings agency, and tells credit reference agency Experian whether you've made the payment on time. Experian then updates your credit file accordingly.

If you know you'll be able to pay on time and you're trying to improve your credit rating or build up a credit history, this can be a clever way to make your rental payments count towards that (though it's early days, and even if you sign up now, lenders won't actually start seeing the data until the end of this year). Of course, if there's a risk you're going to miss payments it could harm your rating.

Payday loans can kill mortgage applications

Some payday lenders disingenuously suggest that taking them out and repaying on time can boost your credit score, as it starts to build a history of better repayment. This is true to a very minor extent for those with abysmal credit histories – though using a credit rebuild card correctly is generally both more effective and far cheaper.

You can ask why you were rejected

If you apply for credit and are rejected, lenders are supposed to give you an explanation if you ask for one. It's worth doing, but usually you just get "because you failed to meet our credit scoring requirements", which makes a chocolate fireguard look useful.

Never pay for a credit repair company

If you see these advertised, avoid them. Either they're doing nothing you can't do yourself with ease, or they're using illegal methods that will bite you on the bum. If you're struggling and need personalised, professional help, see a non-profit debt-counselling agency.

Stability counts, use consistent details between applications, don't overchurn

Homeowners rather than renters, and those who are employed, rather than self-employed, tend to be more readily accepted for credit.

Life change coming? Apply before that happens

Life change incoming! You also score higher on lenders' wish lists when you're earning, so if you may be going on maternity leave, taking time off, or if you suspect potential redundancy, apply beforehand – though never lie about your details.

Cancel unused credit and store cards

They can kill your application. Access to too much available credit, even if it isn't used, can be a problem. If you have a range of unused credit cards and lots of available credit, it could be a good idea to cancel some of them. This lowers your available credit and should help.

Reduce your debts with savings, if you have them

Pay off debts

The amount of outstanding debt you have is part of the information lenders have access to. If you've too much debt, then that hurts your file. After all, would you want to lend to someone who already had a lot of debts to pay elsewhere? So minimising this is a clever strategy.

Default on your file – mitigate the damage

One of the major problems people face are defaults on their credit reference files – in other words, when it shows you didn't pay but should have done. These, especially if they're recent, are a hammer-blow when applying for new credit.

Unfair default or other error on your file? You need to fight it

If you discover an unfair default on your credit file, then you need to dispute it as it will block most applications. Check whether the same default is reported with the other two credit reference agencies as well.

Paying for insurance monthly will affect your credit score

If you decide to pay for insurance in monthly installments, a 'hard search' will be carried out and this will affect your credit score. It's always worth paying upfront if you can – some insurance providers charge APRs of up to 40% if you pay monthly.

Ask for a 'quotation search' or 'soft search' if available

Soft searches

If you're just trying to get a specific quote for a loan, ask the lender to do a 'quotation search' or a 'soft search', not a 'credit search'. This means that while an enquiry will appear on your file, only you can see it. Lenders can't, so it won't have an impact on your credit score.

Sadly, many lenders haven't yet adopted this practice, but it's worth asking. If not, consider whether you really want to get a quote – if it's unlikely you'll get the product, don't bother.

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