Buying a home in Scotland – the timeline

A full run down on what to do & when

Buying a home is one of the most stressful things you'll do, and it's not got any easier as time has gone on. Knowing the rough outline of how the process works though will make the ride that bit smoother. This guide walks you through 25 steps to buying a home, including timescales.

The process is slightly different in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. For the 25 steps to buying a home in these countries, see our full guide.

  1. Get a rough idea of the timescale you're looking at

    Below is a typical timeline for a purchase in Scotland, but it's by no means the rule.

    Timescales will vary depending on the buyer's and seller's circumstances, plus problems can arise during the conveyancing works which can add delays.

    Six weeks to eight months

    • Find a property. Research the area, scour estate agents and search websites.
    • Put in an offer: Tell the seller what you're willing to pay and any conditions.

    Offer accepted to conclusion of missives: two to six weeks

    • It's accepted in principle. Now any conditions of your offer need to be met and you need to get your mortgage application under way.
    • Missives concluded. All conditions have been met, you've agreed a date of entry and you are contractually committed to the purchase.

    Missives concluded to date of entry: one day +

    • Date of entry: You hand over the rest of the cash in exchange for the keys and deeds. The property's now legally yours.
  2. Can you afford the property you want?

    There's no point getting excited about the property of your dreams if you've no idea whether you can afford it. Avoid unnecessary disappointment and if you haven't already by going back and reading our How much can I borrow? guide to check if you:

    • Have the upfront funds you'll need, and...
    • Can borrow the additional cash you'll need

    Our affordability calculator can also help you tot up how much you might be able to borrow, based on your income.

    Also read our Boost your mortgage chances guide to increase your chances of being accepted by a lender. Then consider getting an agreement in principle (AIP). This can increase your attractiveness to estate agents and sellers.

    • How do I get an an agreement in principle?

      An agreement in principle (AIP) is a mini-application where the lender checks your information and your credit file and decides how much it might be willing to lend to you.

      While an AIP can make you look like you are serious about buying to a prospective seller, an AIP is not a binding offer and the lender can change its mind. This could be be because:

      • The lender might not be happy with the property you want to buy
      • You might fail to provide evidence that is requested, such as payslips or a P60
      • The lender might discover something you didn't tell it

      An AIP can also be referred to as a 'decision in principle' and sometimes even a 'mortgage in principle', so keep an eye out for the language.

  3. Find a conveyancing solicitor

    Sometimes when you find the house of your dreams, it's the house of someone else's too. For this reason, when buying a home in Scotland you'll need a solicitor to put a formal offer in writing for you, so it's best to have a conveyancing solicitor lined up and ready to act.

    As well as solicitors, there are licensed conveyancers, who are specialist property lawyers. Your solicitor or licensed conveyancer will do all the legal paperwork, Land Registry and local council searches, draft the contract and handle the exchange of cash.

    This all comes at a price and can cost anywhere up to £1,500, and in some cases more if you've got a complicated case or you want a premium service.

    Once you've found a solicitor or conveyancer, you can get the ball rolling with the rest of the process – househunting and starting to get a mortgage.

    • How do I find a cheap conveyancing solicitor?

      DON'T automatically use the estate agents' firm 

      It's probably a commission-based recommendation. Certainly speak to it and use its price as a benchmark

      DO get maximum quotes to minimum time. 

      Answer a few questions at and it emails you at least four quotes from firms in your area. The Law Society's Find a Solicitor tool also has a section on conveyancing. Ask friends and family for recommendations.

      DON'T assume they need to be nearby. 

      Consider someone from further afield. Don't assume they need to close to you – Glasgow or Edinburgh will do.

      DON'T go for a rock-bottom price if you're in a rush. 

      The cheapest companies often work in bulk and can be slower. If time's an issue, that can be a problem. Pick a company that sounds professional and answers emails promptly.

      DO check for hidden extras.

      Ask for a full fee breakdown. Do they include bank money transfer fees, stamp duty forms, land registration fees and drainage and environmental searches? Some firms even charge extra to verify your ID.

      DON'T automatically use the solicitor who did your divorce. 

      Pick a firm that focuses on conveyancing or at least has a specialist department. Ask how many cases it handled last year. Just because someone did your divorce doesn't mean they can do this job too.

      DO ask if they'll chuck in a will for free. 

      A top tip from money_maker: “Get your will done with your solicitor at the time, as some will do it for free since they are already being paid." For more no-cost or low-cost wills, see Free & cheap wills.

      DON'T be shy. 

      Ensure you fully understand what your legal adviser will and won't do on your behalf. 

      DO check they are regulated by a professional body.

      Solicitors are regulated by the Law Society and conveyancers the Council for Licensed Conveyancers. If they are, then they must have a clear complaints procedure in place.

      DO ask if they've a holiday booked. 

      Will they be on holiday any time in the next three months? If they'll be backpacking in Peru on your preferred completion date, best to pick a different solicitor who will be in Scotland to complete your purchase with you.

  4. Find your dream home

    Now you're really ready to house hunt.

    Make sure you read our 20+ property search tips guide to help you find 'the one'.

  5. Check the seller's Home Report

    A seller must have a Home Report before the property can be advertised for sale. It contains:

    • A single survey
    • An energy report
    • A property questionnaire (that has been completed by the seller)

    You'll probably need to ask the estate agent to email you this. If they can't provide it to you, then ask the seller directly or their solicitor. Make sure you check how old the report is. If the property's been on the market for a long time, things could have changed.

  6. What's the asking price?

    In Scotland, properties tend to be advertised in one of three ways:

    1. Offers over (o/o)

    For example, 'o/o £250,000'. The seller is expecting to exceed this figure. You can still bid lower, but the seller is expecting at least £250,000. 

    This is the most common form of advertisement.

    2. Offers in the region of (OIRO)

    For example, 'OIRO £350,000'. The seller is hoping for around that figure and expects to achieve and maybe exceed it. But if there isn't a lot of interest, this shows they're not ruling out taking a slightly lower figure.

    If it's on an offer basis, you can approach the estate agent to find out the bidding situation. If there's a lot of interest, you may be asked to submit your written offer (via your solicitor) by a closing date.

    You won't be told how much anyone else has bid and the seller will be presented with all the offers at the same time so they can pick the most attractive bid. It's not always just about price, other factors may put you in a stronger position, such as if you can move in quicker or aren't having to wait for a sale to go through.

    3. Fixed price

    For example, a fixed price of £400,000. This is the figure the seller will sell at. This has become more popular over the years and states the exact figure the seller wants. When you make an offer, the estate agent'll pass it straight to the seller to either accept or reject. Basically, it's a race – first to make an acceptable offer gets it.

    The advantage here is that you aren't competing against other unknown bids, you just need to be the first that's willing to pay the price. You can still offer less and the estate agent has to present it to the seller, but it's less likely to be accepted.

    Don't be put off though, especially if the property has been on the market for a while. The seller may go for it or come back with a revised figure.

  7. Make an offer

    You can discuss figures with the estate agent, but they'll want your conveyancer / solicitor to submit the offer in writing.

    There are two types of offers – an unconditional or conditional offer. This is what they mean:

    • Unconditional offer. If your offer simply states the price you're willing to pay, this is an unconditional offer. If the seller accepts it, then you'll have quickly reached a point where you're contractually bound to buy.

      If you wanted to make an unconditional offer to boost your chances of acceptance, you would either need to rely on the survey in the Home Report or pay for a new survey before you make your offer. Paying for one means you're forking out on a house that you haven't had an offer accepted on, so it could be money you lose.

    • Conditional offer. If your offer has conditions in it, then the deal isn't binding until the conditions have been agreed to, met and confirmed. So it won't be as attractive to the seller as an unconditional offer. The most common condition is 'subject to survey'.

      Some other examples of a conditional offer are 'subject to a satisfactory mortgage offer', or 'subject to the seller leaving the white goods and curtains'. See below for more information on what these two conditions mean.

      It's important that you set out what you want in the offer if it's a dealbreaker. Otherwise, if it's not in the offer, you can't assume that the seller will adhere to it.
    • 'Subject to a satisfactory mortgage offer'

      This is a bit of a chicken and egg scenario. You can't apply for a mortgage until your offer has been accepted and if someone else puts in an unconditional offer, you might not get it.

      But this isn't as bad as not putting it in as a condition, becoming contractually bound, and then NOT being able to get the mortgage and getting sued by the seller. Discuss this with your solicitor.

      A good one should warn you not to become contractually bound to purchase (step 17) until they've seen your mortgage offer papers.

    • 'Subject to seller leaving the white goods and curtains'

      If it's not stated in the sales particulars and not in your offer, don't assume it'll be there when you move in. There have been ocassions where sellers have taken everything with them when they leave, down to lightbulbs and the fire grate.

  8. Wait for the seller's decision

    Try not to stress...

    The estate agent will let you know if your offer's been accepted.

  9. MILESTONE – offer accepted

    Mini celebration time!

    But there's still a lot to do, so don't get carried away.

  10. Find the best mortgage for you

    As an agreement in principle (AIP) is usually only valid for 30 or 90 days, if your search took a while the AIP might now have expired. But if you followed the steps in our Boost your mortgage chances guide, there's a good chance you'll be accepted by a lender now that you need to apply for a mortgage proper.

    As the range of mortgage products on offer can change on a daily basis, you shouldn't automatically go back to the lender you got your AIP from. It's definitely worth a good check of the market to see if you can find a better deal. For example, getting a 5% deal instead of 4% on a £150,000 repayment mortgage over 25 years will cost you £26,000 more.

    A good place to start if you're ready to compare mortgages is our Mortgage best buys tool. Here you you can benchmark a good rate for your circumstances.

    For most people it's then worth speaking with a mortgage broker, as they may have access to deals which beat those that appear in our tool, and will also be able to advise which deals you're most likely to be accepted for. See our Cheap mortgage finding guide for more info on appointing a broker.

  11. Now apply for your best mortgage & get a valuation

    Once you've decided what the best mortgage deal is for you, the next step is to apply for it. This is normally done via a broker, but with some mortgage deals you are able to apply direct to the lender.

    When the lender receives your application, it needs to make sure it is happy to:

    • Lend to you. The lender will check that the information you've given is accurate by asking for evidence such as your payslips.

    • Lend on the property you want to buy. The property is the lender's security for the loan, meaning if you don't pay your mortgage, it can repossess the property and sell it to get the money back. So the lender will want to be confident the property is fit for this purpose.

      This is why part of the application process involves an independent valuer assessing the property and reporting to the lender. Each lender will have its own rules about the type of property it's willing to lend on that are largely related to the lender's confidence in being able to sell it again.

    • Why might the lender not lend on my property?

      Lenders may be wary if a property is above a commercial premises, or is in a high rise, or is made of unusual materials. These days lenders are particularly wary of properties with cladding.

      The application form should check the majority of these so the lender can tell if it's a no-go before wasting a valuer's time. But if there's something odd about the property, point it out at application stage.

  12. Your solicitor will carry out searches for you

    While your mortgage application is being looked at by the lender, your conveyancing solicitor will start to carry out the necessary searches. Searches and prices vary based on location. Although some of them are optional, it's advisable to get them all carried out and your mortgage lender will insist on some of them.

    Here are the kind of searches likely to be carried:

    • Local authority searches. These check to see if there's anything you need to be aware of, such as building control issues, enforcement actions and nearby road schemes.

    • Drainage searches. Check it is connected to sewers.

    • Environmental search. Checks land isn't contaminated.

    The searches above always cost money and your solicitor will usually charge you for these early on in the process, so it's not out of pocket. Normally they'll form part of a 'search pack', which typically costs between £150 and £300.

    There's usually no way to minimise these search costs. 

    Frustrated with the pace your solicitor is working at? Make regular phone calls to get papers processed quicker. Remember, you're paying them. If they don't meet your expectations, try writing to a senior partner.

  13. The lawyers will swap 'missives'

    During this period the solicitors will be writing back and forward to negotiate on the offer conditions. These letters/emails are called the 'missives').

    Once these are agreed, they'll keep in touch to check the conditions are on track to be met.

  14. You get a full mortgage offer

    Another celebration point. You now have a formal offer that says the lender is willing to lend you the money to buy that property. Get the bubbly on ice and then carefully check the mortgage offer is accurate. You can do this by:

    • Finding the mortgage illustration. The lender may well have included another copy of the illustration, but now is the time to dig out that original one you safely put away. You need to cross-reference the original with your mortgage offer to be sure you're being offered exactly what you applied for.

      If there are any discrepancies, go back to your broker (or lender if you went direct) and question him/her.

    • Checking all info in the mortgage offer is accurate. Everything on this document needs to be accurate, especially your personal information and the figures. If not, raise it with your broker or solicitor to get it resolved ASAP.

      A serious mistake could mean the lender insists on credit-checking you again or you end up borrowing too little and there's a shortfall when it's time to complete the purchase. Even something like a misspelt name could cause delays, expense and at worst, could mean the mortgage offer is withdrawn.

    • Familiarising yourself with the mortgage conditions. The mortgage offer will state what conditions need to be met before your lender will hand over the cash. It's your solicitor's job to check these have been met, so don't think you can ignore any of them.
  15. Now you need to get the property surveyed

    If you didn't do this before you offered, now is the time. Now you're sure you can borrow what you need, it's time to make sure that the property is in good condition. This is the point that most people say, "but the property has already been checked when the mortgage valuation was done."

    But let us be loud and clear: a mortgage valuation is NOT a survey.

    Yes, the mortgage lender has carried out a basic valuation to assure itself that it is happy to lend on it, but this gives you no protection at all. If the property were to fall down the day after you bought it, it would be tough luck. Yet too many people rely on the mortgage valuation.

    Forumite moonstick's tale shows why you shouldn't rely on the bank's valuation.

    "The back of the master bedroom has a significant slope."

    "I've just bought my first house, a 1940s semi. On the day I moved in, I noticed the back of the master bedroom has a significant slope where it had been extended. I had a joiner come round to look at it – and he said it was a structural defect.

    "When I applied for the mortgage, the bank did a valuation survey, which stated the house was in good condition. It'll probably cost a few grand to fix."

    - moonstick

    Still not certain a mortgage valuation isn't good enough?

    Did you know that sometimes a valuation is limited to a ‘drive by'? The valuer drives past the house and the inspection is limited to what can be seen through the car window.

    Unless you're an expert, get a professional opinion. If a problem is found, it's a good reason to go back to the estate agent and renegotiate on price. This may seem a bit late in the process, but a survey is an additional cost so there's no point in shelling out until you know you can get a mortgage.

    There are three main types of survey:

    1. Homebuyer's report – between £400 and £800. A homebuyer's report is suitable for conventional properties less than 50 years old, and its exact cost depends on the size, location and value of your property. Sometimes your mortgage lender may actually offer you a homebuyer's survey. It's already sending a valuer around to check the property, so often the valuation survey and the homebuyer's report can be done by one person.

      Check the costs of doing this via the lender as opposed to arranging a separate homebuyer's report. Just remember, if the lender's valuer does the homebuyer's survey, then the lender will see a copy too.

    2. Full structural survey – up to £1,500. The second is a full structural survey. More relevant for older or quirkier residences, these are much more detailed, covering everything and can cost up to £1,500, but often are well worth the expense. It could well give you ammunition to haggle down the price.

      Whichever you choose, just be sure to get clear on what they cannot check. They should try to access attic space, etc, but they can't start knocking lumps in walls or lifting carpets in someone else's house (unless the seller agrees to it).

    3. Snagging survey – between £300 and £500. Even those buying new-builds might still have to get out their wallets. A snagging survey pinpoints defects and unfinished bits, so you can push the developer to correct them before completion.

      However, you can download great snagging lists for free (or very little) on the internet and check for yourself (or get a very detail-oriented friend to help you). Have a look at

    Make friends with the surveyor

    It's also worth accompanying the surveyor. They're likely to say far more verbally than they'd write in a report. To get instant quotes from surveyors in your area, fill in your details at

    It's also worth:

    • Getting quotes for potential work. If the survey finds any nasties, ask a reputable builder for repair costs. Ask the vendor to either fix it before completion or knock the total off the price.

    • Getting a second opinion, especially with damp. What might seem like minor work can be complex and expensive. What might seem like minor work can be complex and expensive. You can get a specialist timber and damp report carried out that will check for problems such as damp and woodworm. These usually cost £200-£600.

    "You couldn't notice the damp for a few months"

    "Our survey told us the house had a minor case of damp that would cost £400 to solve. It seemed so minor we didn't even bother to renegotiate with the seller. Once we'd moved in, we discovered the full extent of the damp problem and paid over £4,000, plus associated redecoration costs, on tanking the entire ground floor.

    "The sellers had the walls skimmed shortly before putting on sale, so you couldn't notice the damp for a few months. Then the metal wall fixings and sockets started rusting, the plaster started to salt and bubble, and I developed asthma."

    - Canny-cat

  16. Get your buildings insurance NOW

    "But I don't even own it yet," you cry.

    You might not own it, but once you reach the next stage, you're legally bound to buy, so it's better to be safe than sorry.

    Check your mortgage valuation report for the rebuild value that the surveyor estimated. It might not be anything like the purchase price, but you need to be sure you'd have enough cover to rebuild it if something did happen.

  17. The solicitors will conclude 'missives'

    Once all the conditions of the offer have been met, you (or your conveyancing solicitor on your behalf) will then sign a document to confirm you have 'concluded missives' and will confirm the 'date of entry', when the seller will be paid and you'll get the keys.

    Now you can celebrate. You and the seller are now legally bound to complete the sale and purchase of the property (even if it burns down tomorrow, hence the need for having buildings cover before you even own the place).

  18. Get a completion statement from your solicitor

    Your conveyancing solicitor will give you a completion statement with a clear breakdown of the money you still need to pay.This will include any outstanding deposit, land and buildings transaction tax, solicitors' fees etc.

  19. Send your deposit to the solicitor

    About 10 days before your date of entry, your conveyancing solicitor will ask you to transfer your deposit to their account so it's cleared. Your conveyancing solicitor will want evidence of where the funds have come from to follow money laundering laws.

  20. Your solicitor will do even MORE searches

    Before completion, your solicitor has to check that the seller still owns the property and that you've not been made bankrupt since the lender issued your mortgage offer.

  21. Paying for the house – getting the mortgage money

    The solicitor will send the full payment to the seller's solicitor and receive their title deeds and proof that the seller's mortgage has been cleared (so their bank no longer has any claim to the house).

  22. Finally – it's your date of entry

    The keys are finally yours.

    Now you have the joy of moving... That's the bit of the process that's supposed to be the most stressful – good luck!

  23. Pay your land and buildings transaction tax

    You'll have 30 days for your solicitor to send Revenue Scotland your land and buildings transaction tax return. However, most solicitors will ask for the cash on or before your date of entry.

    You can work out how much land and buildings transaction tax you'll need to pay in our Stamp duty guide.

  24. Your solicitor will register ownership with Registers of Scotland

    Your solicitor will register your details with Registers of Scotland. They keep details of who owns properties in Scotland, and charge a fee when ownership's changed.

    You'll need to pay your solicitor around £300 to £900 to do this, with the exact cost dependent on the price you pay for the property (the fee is higher the more expensive the property).

  25. Get the title deeds

    Your solicitor will get the new title deeds from Registers of Scotland and forward them to your mortgage lender (or you if you are mortgage free).

    Congratulations – it's all over! You're in your new home (yay), and can start paying off your mortgage (boo)!

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